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Hierarchy and structure

The National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016, is based on the NOC 2011 four-tiered hierarchical structure. The first level contains 10 broad occupational categories, the second level is made of 40 major groups, the third level consists of 140 minor groups and the last level comprises 500 unit groups.

The structure presented below allows you to drilldown from one of the broad occupational categories to its associated unit groups.

Structure breakdown – 2016

0 Management occupations

00 Senior management occupations

001 Legislators and senior management
0011Legislators

Legislators participate in the activities of a federal, provincial, territorial or local government legislative body or executive council, band council or school board as elected or appointed members.

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0012Senior government managers and officials

Senior government managers and officials plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the major activities of municipal or regional governments or of provincial, territorial or federal departments, boards, agencies or commissions. They establish the direction to be taken by these organizations in accordance with legislation and policies made by elected representatives or legislative bodies.

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0013Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services

Senior managers in financial, communications and other business services are usually appointed by a board of directors, to which they report. They work either alone or in conjunction with the board of directors to develop and establish objectives for the company, and to develop or approve policies and programs. They plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the operations of their organization in relation to established objectives. They work in establishments throughout the telecommunications, finance, insurance, real estate, and data processing, hosting and related services industries as well as other business service industries or they may own and operate their own business.

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0014Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations

Senior managers in health, education, social and community services and membership organizations plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, membership and other organizations or institutions that deliver health, education, social or community services. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these organizations, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They are employed in health care organizations, educational services, social and community services and membership organizations or they may own and operate their own business.

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0015Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c.

Senior managers in trade, broadcasting and other customer services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, trade, broadcasting and other service industry companies. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They work in establishments in broadcasting and related media services, wholesale trade, retail trade, accommodation and food service, and other services not elsewhere classified or they may own and operate their own business.

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0016Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities

Senior managers in construction, transportation, production and utilities plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the overall operations of goods production, utility, transportation and construction companies. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with other members of a board of directors. They work in establishments throughout the following industries: fishing, forestry, logging and agriculture; mining, oil and gas extraction; construction; transportation and warehousing; printing; manufacturing; and utilities or they may own and operate their own business.

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01 Specialized middle management occupations

011 Administrative services managers
0111Financial managers

Financial managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of financial and accounting departments. They develop and implement the financial policies and systems of establishments. Financial managers establish performance standards and prepare various financial reports for senior management. They are employed in financial and accounting departments in companies throughout the private sector and in government.

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0112Human resources managers

Human resources managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources and personnel departments, and develop and implement policies, programs and procedures regarding human resource planning, recruitment, collective bargaining, training and development, occupation classification and pay and benefit administration. They represent management and participate actively on various joint committees to maintain ongoing relations between management and employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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0113Purchasing managers

Purchasing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a purchasing department and develop and implement the purchasing policies of a business or institution. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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0114Other administrative services managers

Other administrative services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate departments responsible for corporate governance and regulatory compliance, records management, security services, admissions and other administrative services. Also included in this unit group are managers responsible for departments involved in two or more of the following activities: finance, human resources, purchasing or administrative services. They are employed throughout the public and private sector.

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012 Managers in financial and business services
0121Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers

Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of departments or establishments that provide insurance, mortgage, real estate and investment services. They are generally responsible for business development and must ensure that their group reaches performance levels related to established objectives. They are employed by insurance companies, real estate firms, stockbrokers, investment dealers, mortgage brokers and security and commodity exchanges.

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0122Banking, credit and other investment managers

Banking, credit and other investment managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of financial establishments or operational departments within such establishments, or credit departments in industrial and commercial establishments. They oversee business development and manage overall performance in accordance with established strategic directions and policies. Banking managers are employed by banks, trust companies and credit unions. Credit managers are employed by credit departments in department stores, utility companies, car dealerships, insurance companies or other industrial or commercial organizations. Other investment managers are employed by credit card companies, consumer loan companies, mutual fund investment firms, mortgage investment companies or other financial establishments concerned with extending loans and financing and investments.

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0124Advertising, marketing and public relations managers

Advertising, marketing, public relations and e-business managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial and e-business advertising, marketing and public relations. They are employed by commercial and industrial establishments, government departments, and advertising, marketing and public relations firms or consulting businesses.

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0125Other business services managers

Other business services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that provide services to business, and ensure the quality of those services and client satisfaction. They work in fields such as management consulting, market research, personnel and payroll services, contact centre services and security services.

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013 Managers in communication (except broadcasting)
0131Telecommunication carriers managers

Telecommunication carriers managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a telecommunications establishment, department or facility. They are employed by wired, wireless, satellite and other telecommunications carriers.

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0132Postal and courier services managers

Postal and courier services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities and operations in postal facilities and in establishments that provide courier services. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation and by courier companies.

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02 Specialized middle management occupations

021 Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
0211Engineering managers

Engineering managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an engineering department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments and by consulting engineering and scientific research companies.

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0212Architecture and science managers

Architecture and science managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an architecture, landscape architecture, scientific or statistical department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments as well as by architectural firms and scientific research companies.

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0213Computer and information systems managers

Computer and information systems managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of organizations that analyze, design, develop, implement, operate and administer computer and telecommunications software, networks and information systems. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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03 Specialized middle management occupations

031 Managers in health care
0311Managers in health care

Managers in health care plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care services, such as diagnosis and treatment, nursing and therapy, within institutions, and in other settings, that provide health care services. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes and other health care organizations.

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04 Specialized middle management occupations

041 Managers in public administration
0411Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration

Government managers in health and social policy development and program administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and administration of health care policies, social policies and related programs designed to protect and promote the health and social welfare of individuals and communities. They are employed by all levels of government.

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0412Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration

Government managers in economic analysis, policy development and program administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate economic policy, research and programs in areas of government activity such as taxation, international trade, labour markets, transportation or agriculture. They also plan and direct policies and programs to promote industrial and commercial business development in urban and rural areas. They are employed by all levels of government.

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0413Government managers - education policy development and program administration

Government managers in education policy development and program administration organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and administration of elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed by all levels of government.

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0414Other managers in public administration

Other managers in public administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development of policies and programs which govern the daily operations of legislatures and other activities unique to government such as intergovernmental affairs and elections. They are employed by all levels of government.

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042 Managers in education and social and community services
0421Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training

Administrators in post-secondary education and vocational training include faculty administrators and registrars of colleges or universities and administrators of vocational training schools. Faculty administrators manage the academic and related activities of faculties of colleges or universities. Registrars manage registration activities and academic records systems of colleges or universities. Administrators of vocational training schools manage the operations of vocational schools specializing in trades, technology, business or other vocational subjects.

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0422School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education

School principals plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of teachers and other staff of an elementary or secondary school. They are employed by public and private schools. Administrators of elementary and secondary education plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the academic affairs of a school system. They are employed by school boards.

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0423Managers in social, community and correctional services

Managers in social, community and correctional services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the programs and activities of social service and community agencies, correctional institutions, counselling departments, labour organizations, professional associations, political parties and non-governmental organizations.

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043 Managers in public protection services
0431Commissioned police officers

Commissioned police officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate police force administration and police activities such as maintaining law and order and detecting and preventing crime. They are employed by municipal, provincial and federal governments. This unit group includes officers from the rank of staff sergeant to police commissioner. Commissioned officers in the railway police are also included in this unit group.

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0432Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers

Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate firefighting operations and fire prevention activities in fire departments. They are employed by municipal and federal governments and by industrial establishments with firefighting services.

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0433Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces

Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces plan, organize, command and evaluate the activities of personnel in the Canadian Armed Forces. All ranks of commissioned officers in the Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Navy are included in this unit group.

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05 Specialized middle management occupations

051 Managers in art, culture, recreation and sport
0511Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers

Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of libraries, archives, museums, art galleries or departments within such institutions. They are employed in libraries, archives, museums and non-retail art galleries.

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0512Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts

Managers in publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate operations within publishing firms, film, theatre and record production companies and broadcasting facilities. They are employed by radio and television stations, by newspaper, periodical and book publishing firms, and by film, theatre, record and video production companies.

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0513Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors

Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of comprehensive recreational, sports and fitness programs and services, national or provincial sports governing agencies and professional athletic teams. They are employed by municipalities, community and private recreational and fitness organizations, sports governing agencies and professional athletic team organizations.

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06 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services

060 Corporate sales managers
0601Corporate sales managers

Corporate sales managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial, institutional, e-business and wholesale and retail sales. They are employed by commercial, industrial and wholesale and retail trade establishments.

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062 Retail and wholesale trade managers
0621Retail and wholesale trade managers

Retail and wholesale trade managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that sell merchandise or services on a retail or wholesale basis. They are employed by retail and wholesale sales establishments or they may own and operate their own store.

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063 Managers in food service and accommodation
0631Restaurant and food service managers

Restaurant and food service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of restaurants, bars, cafeterias and other food and beverage services. They are employed in food and beverage service establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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0632Accommodation service managers

Accommodation service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an accommodation establishment or of a department within such an establishment. They are employed by hotels, motels, resorts, student residences and other accommodation establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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065 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
0651Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.

Managers in customer and personal services include managers of establishments that provide services such as dry cleaning, hairdressing or residential cleaning. This unit group also includes managers of schools that provide non-vocational instruction in driving, languages, music, dance, art, cooking or fashion.

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07 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities

071 Managers in construction and facility operation and maintenance
0711Construction managers

Construction managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a construction company or a construction department within a company, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and by construction departments of companies outside the construction industry.

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0712Home building and renovation managers

Home building managers own, operate and manage companies engaged in the construction of new residential homes. Home renovation managers own, operate and manage companies engaged in the renovation of existing residential homes.

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0714Facility operation and maintenance managers

Facility operation managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of commercial, transportation and recreational facilities and the included real estate. Facility operation managers are employed by a wide range of establishments, such as airports, harbours, canals, shopping centres, convention centres, warehouses and recreational facilities. Maintenance managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the maintenance department within commercial, industrial, institutional, recreational and other facilities. Maintenance managers are employed by a wide range of establishments, such as office buildings, shopping centres, airports, harbours, warehouses, grain terminals, universities, schools and sports facilities, and by the maintenance and mechanical engineering departments of manufacturing and other industrial establishments.

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073 Managers in transportation
0731Managers in transportation

Managers in transportation operations plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of transportation companies such as railways, airlines, bus lines, municipal transit systems, shipping lines and trucking companies, under the direction of a general manager or another senior manager. Managers in transportation freight traffic plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate companies or departments responsible for the transportation and movement of goods, under the direction of a general manager or another senior manager. They are employed by transportation, freight forwarding and shipping companies and by transportation departments of companies in retail and manufacturing sectors and utilities.

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08 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities

081 Managers in natural resources production and fishing
0811Managers in natural resources production and fishing

Managers in natural resources production and fishing plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments in forestry and logging, mining and quarrying, oil and gas drilling, production and servicing operations, and commercial fishing.

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082 Managers in agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture
0821Managers in agriculture

Managers in agriculture plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations and functions of farms. They are responsible for growing crops, raising and breeding livestock, poultry and other animals and marketing farm products. They usually own and operate their own establishment.

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0822Managers in horticulture

Managers in horticulture plan, organize, direct and control the activities of nursery and greenhouse staff who grow and market trees, shrubs, flowers and plants.

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0823Managers in aquaculture

Managers in aquaculture manage operations of facilities which cultivate and harvest fish, shellfish or marine plants for replenishment of wildlife stocks or for commercial sale. They are employed by public or private fish hatcheries and commercial aquatic farms, or they may be self-employed.

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09 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities

091 Managers in manufacturing and utilities
0911Manufacturing managers

Manufacturing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a manufacturing establishment or of a production department within a manufacturing establishment, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by manufacturing companies.

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0912Utilities managers

Utilities managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of utility companies or services of heating fuel distribution companies. The services provided include treatment of water and waste, distribution of water, electricity, natural gas and heating oil to residential, commercial and industrial consumers, waste disposal and waste recycling. They are employed in public and private sector utilities and in heating fuel distribution companies.

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1 Business, finance and administration occupations

11 Professional occupations in business and finance

111 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals
1111Financial auditors and accountants

Financial auditors examine and analyze the accounting and financial records of individuals and establishments to ensure accuracy and compliance with established accounting standards and procedures. Accountants plan, organize and administer accounting systems for individuals and establishments. They are employed by private sector accounting and auditing firms or departments and public sector accounting and auditing departments or units, or they may be self-employed. Articling students in accounting firms are included in this unit group.

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1112Financial and investment analysts

Financial and investment analysts collect and analyze financial information such as economic forecasts, trading volumes and the movement of capital, financial backgrounds of companies, historical performances and future trends of stocks, bonds and other investment instruments to provide financial and investment or financing advice for their company or their company's clients. Their studies and evaluations cover areas such as takeover bids, private placements, mergers or acquisitions. Financial analysts are employed by a wide range of establishments throughout the private and public sector, such as banks, brokerage houses, insurance companies, investment companies, manufacturing firms, trust companies, utility companies and underwriting firms. Investment analysts are employed primarily by brokerage houses and fund management companies.

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1113Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers

Securities agents and investment dealers buy and sell stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other securities for individual investors, pension fund managers, banks, trust companies, insurance firms and other establishments. Brokers buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at stock exchanges on behalf of investment dealers. They are employed by investment companies, stock brokerage firms, stock and commodity exchanges and other establishments in the securities industry.

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1114Other financial officers

Other financial officers include professional occupations in finance such as financial planners, financial examiners and inspectors, financial investigators, financial underwriters, mortgage brokers and trust officers. They are employed by banks, trust companies, investment firms and governments, or they may be self-employed.

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112 Human resources and business service professionals
1121Human resources professionals

Human resources professionals develop, implement and evaluate human resources and labour relations policies, programs and procedures and advise employers and employees on human resources matters. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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1122Professional occupations in business management consulting

Professionals in business management consulting occupations provide services to management such as analyzing the structure, operations, managerial methods or functions of an organization in order to propose, plan and implement improvements. They are employed by management consulting firms and throughout the public and private sectors or are self-employed.

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1123Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations

Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations includes professionals in advertising, marketing and public relations who analyse, develop and implement communication and promotion strategies and information programs, analyse advertising needs and develop appropriate advertising and marketing plans, publicize activities and events, and maintain media relations on behalf of businesses, governments and other organizations, and for performers, athletes, writers and other talented individuals. They are employed by consulting firms, advertising agencies, corporations, associations, government, social agencies, museums, galleries, public interest groups, and cultural and other organizations, or they may be self-employed. Agents such as entertainment, literary and sports agents are included in this unit group.

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12 Administrative and financial supervisors and administrative occupations

121 Administrative services supervisors
1211Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers

Supervisors of general office and administrative support workers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following minor groups: General office workers (141) and Office equipment operators (142). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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1212Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers

Supervisors of finance and insurance office workers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Accounting and related clerks (1431), Payroll administrators (1432), Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (1434) and Collectors (1435). They are employed by banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, and by other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1213Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers

Supervisors of library, correspondence and related information workers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Library assistants and clerks (1451), Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks (1452) and Survey interviewers and statistical clerks (1454). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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1214Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations

Supervisors of mail and message distribution occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following minor group: Mail and message distribution occupations (151). They are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier companies, governments and large corporations.

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1215Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations

Supervisors of supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following minor group: Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations (152). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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122 Administrative and regulatory occupations
1221Administrative officers

Administrative officers oversee and implement administrative procedures, establish work priorities, conduct analyses of administrative operations and co-ordinate acquisition of administrative services such as office space, supplies and security services. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors. Administrative officers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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1222Executive assistants

Executive assistants co-ordinate administrative procedures, public relations activities and research and analysis functions for members of legislative assemblies, ministers, deputy ministers, corporate officials and executives, committees and boards of directors. They are employed by governments, corporations and associations.

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1223Human resources and recruitment officers

Human resources and recruitment officers identify and advertise job vacancies, recruit candidates, and assist in the selection and reassignment of employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1224Property administrators

Property administrators perform administrative duties and co-ordinate activities related to the management and rental of investment property and real estate on behalf of property and strata property owners. They are employed by property, real estate and strata services management companies, property development companies and by government.

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1225Purchasing agents and officers

Purchasing agents and officers purchase general and specialized equipment, materials, land or access rights and business services for use or for further processing by their establishment. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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1226Conference and event planners

Conference and event planners plan, organize and co-ordinate conferences, conventions, meetings, seminars, exhibitions, trade shows, festivals and other events. They are employed by tourism associations, trade and professional associations, convention and conference centres, governments and by conference and event planning companies, or they may be self-employed.

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1227Court officers and justices of the peace

Court officers co-ordinate the administrative and procedural functions of federal, provincial and territorial courts, such as scheduling trials and overseeing the maintenance of court records. Justices of the peace administer oaths, issue subpoenas, summonses and warrants and perform other court-related duties such as conducting bail hearings. They are employed by federal, provincial and territorial courts.

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1228Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers

Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers administer and enforce laws and regulations related to immigration, customs, border crossing, tax revenue, employment insurance and other government benefit services. They are employed by government agencies.

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124 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical
1241Administrative assistants

Administrative assistants perform a variety of administrative duties in support of managerial and professional employers. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1242Legal administrative assistants

Legal administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in law offices, legal departments of large firms, real estate companies, land title offices, municipal, provincial and federal courts and government.

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1243Medical administrative assistants

Medical administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in doctor's offices, hospitals, medical clinics and other medical settings.

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125 Court reporters, transcriptionists, records management technicians and statistical officers
1251Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations

Court reporters record and transcribe verbatim the proceedings of courts, legislative assemblies and committees, and prepare transcripts for use by judges, tribunals and quasi-judicial panels. They are employed by courts of law, provincial and federal legislative assemblies and committees, or they may be self-employed. Medical transcriptionists record, transcribe and edit dictation by physicians and other health care providers, surgical proceedings, health-related reports and other medical documentation. They are employed by hospitals, medical clinics and doctors' offices, or they may be self-employed. Closed captioners and other transcriptionists are included in this unit group.

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1252Health information management occupations

Health information management workers collect, code, record, review and manage health information. They are employed by hospitals, clinics, workplace health and safety boards, health record consulting firms and other health care establishments. Health information management workers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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1253Records management technicians

Records management technicians operate and maintain systems for the collection, classification, retrieval and retention of records, images, documents and information. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1254Statistical officers and related research support occupations

Statistical officers and workers in related research support occupations provide statistical and research support services to a wide range of businesses and organizations. These workers conduct statistical routines, monitor trends, compile data and prepare charts, graphs, summaries and reports in support of organizational information needs and research activities. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors. Statistical officers who are also supervisors are included in this unit group.

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13 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations

131 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
1311Accounting technicians and bookkeepers

Accounting technicians and bookkeepers maintain complete sets of books, keep records of accounts, verify the procedures used for recording financial transactions, and provide personal bookkeeping services. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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1312Insurance adjusters and claims examiners

Insurance adjusters investigate insurance claims and determine the amount of loss or damages covered by insurance policies. They are employed in claims departments of insurance companies or as independent adjusters. Insurance claims examiners examine claims investigated by insurance adjusters and authorize payments. They are employed at head offices or branches of insurance companies.

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1313Insurance underwriters

Insurance underwriters review and evaluate insurance applications to determine insurance risks, insurance premiums and extent of insurance coverage according to company policies. They are employed at head and branch offices of insurance companies.

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1314Assessors, valuators and appraisers

Assessors, valuators and appraisers determine the value of land, businesses, estates and other real property, for purposes of sale, purchase, taxation or disposal of assets. Appraisers also determine the value of personal and household items. Assessors, valuators and appraisers are employed by government agencies, real estate firms and other private companies, or they may be self-employed.

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1315Customs, ship and other brokers

Customs brokers clear goods through customs and to their destination on behalf of importer and exporter clients. Shipbrokers buy and sell cargo space on ships and buy and sell ships, yachts and other watercraft on behalf of clients. This unit group also includes other brokers who negotiate commercial transactions, logistics or other services between parties on behalf of clients. They are employed by customs, ship or other brokerage establishments or may be self-employed.

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14 Office support occupations

141 General office workers
1411General office support workers

General office support workers prepare correspondence, reports, statements and other material, operate office equipment, answer telephones, verify, record and process forms and documents such as contracts and requisitions and perform general clerical duties according to established procedures. They are employed in offices throughout the public and private sectors.

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1414Receptionists

Receptionists greet people arriving at offices, hospitals and other establishments, direct visitors to appropriate person or service, answer and forward telephone calls, take messages, schedule appointments and perform other clerical duties. They are employed by hospitals, medical and dental offices and other offices throughout the public and private sectors. Telephone operators are included in this group.

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1415Personnel clerks

Personnel clerks assist personnel officers and human resources specialists and compile, maintain and process information relating to staffing, recruitment, training, labour relations, performance evaluations and classifications. They are employed in personnel departments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1416Court clerks

Court clerks perform support functions in courts of law, such as calling court to order, preparing court dockets and maintaining exhibits. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal courts.

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142 Office equipment operators
1422Data entry clerks

Data entry clerks input coded, statistical, financial and other information into computerized databases, spreadsheets or other templates using a keyboard, mouse, or optical scanner, speech recognition software or other data entry tools. They are employed in the private and public sectors.

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1423Desktop publishing operators and related occupations

Desktop publishing operators and workers in related occupations use computers to enter copy into a typesetting system or operate typesetting output equipment to produce text that is ready to print. They are employed by firms that specialize in typesetting, commercial printing companies, publishing and printing companies and various establishments in the public and private sectors that have in-house printing departments.

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143 Financial, insurance and related administrative support workers
1431Accounting and related clerks

Accounting and related clerks calculate, prepare and process bills, invoices, accounts payable and receivable, budgets and other financial records according to established procedures. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1432Payroll administrators

Payroll administrators collect, verify and process payroll information, determine pay and benefit entitlements for employees, maintain accurate payroll records, and provide payroll information within a department, company or other establishment. They are employed by payroll administration companies and by establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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1434Banking, insurance and other financial clerks

Banking, insurance and other financial clerks compile, process and maintain banking, insurance and other financial information. They are employed by banks, credit companies, private and public insurance establishments, investment firms and other financial establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1435Collectors

Collectors collect payments on overdue accounts and bad cheques and locate debtors to make collection arrangements. They are employed by collection agencies, utility companies, department stores, loan companies, banks and credit unions, and by financial and licensing departments within governments.

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145 Library, correspondence and other clerks
1451Library assistants and clerks

Library assistants and clerks issue and receive library materials, sort and shelve books and provide general library information to users. They also perform clerical functions. Library clerks are employed by libraries or other establishments with library services.

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1452Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks

Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks write correspondence, proofread material for accuracy, compile material for publication, verify, record and process forms and documents, such as applications, licences, permits, contracts, registrations and requisitions, and perform other related clerical duties in accordance with established procedures, guidelines and schedules. They are employed by newspapers, periodicals, publishing firms and by establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1454Survey interviewers and statistical clerks

Survey interviewers contact individuals to gather information for market research, public opinion polls or election and census enumeration. Statistical clerks code and compile interview and other data into reports, lists, directories and other documents. They are employed by market research and polling firms, government departments and agencies, utility companies, contact centres and other establishments. This unit group also includes clerks who observe and record information on traffic flow.

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15 Distribution, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations

151 Mail and message distribution occupations
1511Mail, postal and related workers

Mail, postal and related workers process and sort mail and parcels in post offices, mail processing plants and internal mail rooms, and clerks who serve customers and record transactions at sales counters and postal wickets. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier and parcel express companies and establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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1512Letter carriers

Letter carriers sort and deliver mail, record delivery of registered mail and collect money for cash-on-delivery parcels. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation.

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1513Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors

Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors pick up and deliver letters, parcels, packages, newspapers, flyers and other items within and between establishments. They are employed by courier service companies and other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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152 Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
1521Shippers and receivers

Shippers and receivers ship, receive and record the movement of parts, supplies, materials, equipment and stock to and from an establishment. They are employed in the public sector and by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.

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1522Storekeepers and partspersons

Storekeepers and partspersons sort, store and issue parts and supplies for use by the establishment in which they work and for sale to the public. They are employed by manufacturing companies, warehouses, retail and wholesale establishments, mining, forestry and construction companies, repair shops, hospitals and other establishments.

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1523Production logistics co-ordinators

Production logistics co-ordinators co-ordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within an establishment, prepare work and production schedules and monitor the progress of production and construction projects. They are employed by manufacturing and construction companies, printing and publishing companies and other industrial establishments.

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1524Purchasing and inventory control workers

Purchasing and inventory control workers process purchasing transactions and maintain inventories of materials, equipment and stock. They are employed by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies, government agencies and other establishments.

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1525Dispatchers

Dispatchers operate radios and other telecommunication equipment to dispatch emergency vehicles and to co-ordinate the activities of drivers and other personnel. They are employed by police, fire and health departments, other emergency service agencies, taxi, delivery and courier services, trucking and utilities companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.

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1526Transportation route and crew schedulers

Transportation route and crew schedulers prepare operational and crew schedules for transportation equipment and operating personnel. They are employed by municipal transit commissions, truck, delivery and courier companies, railways, airlines and by other transportation establishments in both the private and public sectors.

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2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations

21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences

211 Physical science professionals
2111Physicists and astronomers

Physicists conduct theoretical and applied research to extend knowledge of natural phenomena and to develop new processes and devices in fields such as electronics, communications, power generation and distribution, aerodynamics, optics and lasers, remote sensing, biotechnology, medicine and health. They are employed by electronic, electrical and aerospace manufacturing companies, telecommunications companies, power utilities, university and government research laboratories, hospitals and by a wide range of other processing, manufacturing, and research and consulting firms. Astronomers conduct observational and theoretical research to extend knowledge of the universe. They are employed by government and universities.

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2112Chemists

Chemists conduct research and analysis in support of industrial operations, product and process development, quality control, environmental control, medical diagnosis and treatment, biotechnology, nanotechnology and other applications. They also conduct theoretical, experimental and applied research into basic chemical and biochemical processes to create or synthesize new products and processes. They are employed in research, development and quality control laboratories; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries; mineral, metal and pulp and paper industries; and a wide variety of manufacturing, utility, health, educational and government establishments.

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2113Geoscientists and oceanographers

Geoscientists include geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who conduct programs of exploration and research to extend knowledge of the structure, composition and processes of the earth, to locate, identify and extract hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater resources and to assess and mitigate the effects of development and waste disposal projects on the environment. Oceanographers conduct programs of exploration and research on ocean processes and phenomena, biological, chemical and physical characteristics of oceans, interactions with atmospheric and geological environments and impacts of human activity on oceans and marine ecosystems. Geoscientists are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology, geophysics and engineering firms and by governments and educational institutions, or they may be self-employed. Oceanographers are employed by governments, educational institutions and private companies engaged in exploration of seafloor deposits and seafarming areas, or they may be self-employed.

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2114Meteorologists and climatologists

Meteorologists and climatologists analyze and forecast weather, provide consultation on atmospheric phenomena and conduct research into the processes and phenomena of weather, climate and atmosphere. They are employed by all levels of government, natural resources and utility companies, the media and private consulting firms, or they may be self-employed.

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2115Other professional occupations in physical sciences

Professionals in other physical sciences occupations conduct theoretical and applied research in fields of physical science. Metallurgists, soil scientists and physical scientists and researchers are included in this unit group. They are employed by governments, educational institutions and a wide range of industrial establishments.

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212 Life science professionals
2121Biologists and related scientists

Biologists and related scientists conduct basic and applied research to extend knowledge of living organisms, to manage natural resources, and to develop new practices and products related to medicine and agriculture. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, environmental consulting companies, resource and utilities companies, chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnical companies and health and educational institutions.

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2122Forestry professionals

Forestry professionals conduct research, develop plans and administer and direct programs related to the management and harvesting of forest resources. They are employed by the forest industry, provincial and federal governments, consulting companies, educational institutions and other industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2123Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists

Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists provide assistance and advice to farmers on all aspects of farm management, cultivation, fertilization, harvesting, soil erosion and composition, disease prevention, nutrition, crop rotation and marketing. They are employed by businesses, institutions and governments that assist the farming community, or they may be self-employed.

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213 Civil, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers
2131Civil engineers

Civil engineers plan, design, develop and manage projects for the construction or repair of buildings, earth structures, powerhouses, roads, airports, railways, rapid transit facilities, bridges, tunnels, canals, dams, ports and coastal installations and systems related to highway and transportation services, water distribution and sanitation. They may also specialize in foundation analysis, building and structural inspection, surveying, geomatics and municipal planning. They are employed by engineering consulting companies, in all levels of government, by construction firms and in many other industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2132Mechanical engineers

Mechanical engineers research, design and develop machinery and systems for heating, ventilating and air conditioning, power generation, transportation, processing and manufacturing. They also perform duties related to the evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems. They are employed by consulting firms, by power-generating utilities and in a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2133Electrical and electronics engineers

Electrical and electronics engineers design, plan, research, evaluate and test electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and by a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries and government.

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2134Chemical engineers

Chemical engineers research, design, and develop chemical processes and equipment, oversee the operation and maintenance of industrial chemical, plastics, pharmaceutical, resource, pulp and paper, and food processing plants and perform duties related to chemical quality control, environmental protection and biochemical or biotechnical engineering. They are employed in a wide range of manufacturing and processing industries, consulting firms, government, research and educational institutions.

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214 Other engineers
2141Industrial and manufacturing engineers

Industrial and manufacturing engineers conduct studies, and develop and supervise programs to achieve the best use of equipment, human resources, technology, materials and procedures to enhance efficiency and productivity. They are employed in consulting firms, manufacturing and processing companies, in government, financial, health care and other institutions, or they may be self-employed.

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2142Metallurgical and materials engineers

Metallurgical and materials engineers conduct studies of the properties and characteristics of metals and other non-metallic materials and plan, design and develop machinery and processes to concentrate, extract, refine and process metals, alloys and other materials such as ceramics, semiconductors and composite materials. They are employed in consulting engineering firms, mining, metal processing and manufacturing companies, and in government, research and educational institutions.

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2143Mining engineers

Mining engineers plan, design, organize and supervise the development of mines, mine facilities, systems and equipment; and prepare and supervise the extraction of metallic or non-metallic minerals and ores from underground or surface mines. They are employed by mining companies, consulting engineering companies, manufacturers, government and in educational and research institutions.

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2144Geological engineers

Geological engineers conduct geological and geotechnical studies to assess suitability of locations for civil engineering, mining and oil and gas projects; and plan, design, develop and supervise programs of geological data acquisition and analysis and the preparation of geological engineering reports and recommendations. They are employed in consulting engineering companies, electrical utilities, mining and petroleum companies and in government and research and educational institutions.

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2145Petroleum engineers

Petroleum engineers conduct studies for the exploration, development and extraction of oil and gas deposits; and plan, design, develop and supervise projects for the drilling, completion, testing and re-working of oil and gas wells. They are employed by petroleum producing companies, consulting companies, well logging or testing companies, government, and research and educational institutions.

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2146Aerospace engineers

Aerospace engineers research, design and develop aerospace vehicles, aerospace systems and their components, and perform duties related to their testing, evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance. They are employed by aircraft and spacecraft manufacturers, air transport carriers, and in government and educational and research institutions.

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2147Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)

Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) research, plan, design, develop, modify, evaluate and integrate computer and telecommunications hardware and related equipment, and information and communication system networks including mainframe systems, local and wide area networks, fibre-optic networks, wireless communication networks, intranets, the Internet and other data communications systems. They are employed by computer and telecommunication hardware manufacturers, by engineering, manufacturing and telecommunications firms, in information technology consulting firms, by governmental, educational and research institutions and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2148Other professional engineers, n.e.c.

Other professional engineers include agricultural and bio-resource engineers, biomedical engineers, engineering physicists and engineering scientists, marine and naval engineers, textile engineers and other specialized engineering occupations.

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215 Architects, urban planners and land surveyors
2151Architects

Architects conceptualize, plan and develop designs for the construction and renovation of commercial, institutional and residential buildings. They are employed by architectural firms, private corporations and governments, or they may be self-employed.

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2152Landscape architects

Landscape architects conceptualize, design, plan and manage the construction of natural, cultural and built landscape development for commercial projects, office complexes, parks, golf courses and residential development. They are employed by government environmental and development agencies, landscape consulting firms and by architectural and engineering firms, or they are self-employed.

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2153Urban and land use planners

Urban and land use planners develop plans and recommend policies for managing land use, physical facilities and associated services for urban and rural areas and remote regions. They are employed by all levels of government, land developers, engineering and other consulting companies, or may work as private consultants.

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2154Land surveyors

Land surveyors plan, direct and conduct legal surveys to establish the location of real property boundaries, contours and other natural or human-made features, and prepare and maintain cross-sectional drawings, official plans, records and documents pertaining to these surveys. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, private sector land surveying establishments, real estate development, natural resource, engineering and construction firms, or they may be self-employed.

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216 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
2161Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries

Mathematicians and statisticians research mathematical or statistical theories, and develop and apply mathematical or statistical techniques for solving problems in such fields as science, engineering, business and social science. Actuaries apply mathematics, statistics, probability and risk theory to assess potential financial impacts of future events. Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries are employed by universities, governments, bank and trust companies, insurance companies, pension benefit consulting firms, professional associations, and science and engineering consulting firms.

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217 Computer and information systems professionals
2171Information systems analysts and consultants

Information systems analysts and consultants analyze and test systems requirements, develop and implement information systems development plans, policies and procedures, and provide advice on a wide range of information systems issues. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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2172Database analysts and data administrators

Database analysts design, develop and administer data management solutions using database management software. Data administrators develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2173Software engineers and designers

Software engineers and designers research, design, evaluate, integrate and maintain software applications, technical environments, operating systems, embedded software, information warehouses and telecommunications software. They are employed in information technology consulting firms, information technology research and development firms, and information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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2174Computer programmers and interactive media developers

Computer programmers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for software applications, data processing applications, operating systems-level software and communications software. Interactive media developers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for Internet and mobile applications, computer-based training software, computer games, film, video and other interactive media. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2175Web designers and developers

Web designers and developers research, design, develop and produce Internet and Intranet sites. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, advertising agencies or they may be self-employed.

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22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences

221 Technical occupations in physical sciences
2211Chemical technologists and technicians

Chemical technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in chemical engineering, chemical and biochemical research and analysis, industrial chemistry, chemical quality control and environmental protection. They are employed by research and development and quality control laboratories, consulting engineering companies, in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and a variety of other manufacturing and processing industries, and by utilities, health, educational and government establishments.

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2212Geological and mineral technologists and technicians

Geological and mineral technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in the fields of oil and gas exploration and production, geophysics, petroleum engineering, geology, mining and mining engineering, mineralogy, extractive and physical metallurgy, metallurgical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology and engineering firms, and by governments and educational institutions as well as by a variety of manufacturing, construction and utilities companies.

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222 Technical occupations in life sciences
2221Biological technologists and technicians

Biological technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals working in fields such as agriculture, resource management, environmental protection, plant and animal biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology and health sciences, or may work independently in these fields. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, manufacturers of food products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology companies, health, research and educational institutions, environmental consulting companies, and resource and utilities companies.

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2222Agricultural and fish products inspectors

Agricultural and fish products inspectors inspect agricultural and fish products for conformity to prescribed production, storage and transportation standards. They are employed by government departments and agencies and by private sector food processing companies. Supervisors of agricultural and fish products inspectors are also included in this unit group.

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2223Forestry technologists and technicians

Forestry technologists and technicians may work independently or perform technical and supervisory functions in support of forestry research, forest management, forest harvesting, forest resource conservation and environmental protection. They are employed by the forest industry sector, provincial and federal governments, consulting firms, and other industries and institutions, or they may be self-employed.

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2224Conservation and fishery officers

Conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers enforce federal and provincial regulations established for the protection of fish, wildlife and other natural resources and collect and relay information on resource management. They are employed by federal and provincial government departments.

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2225Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists

Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists survey and assess landscapes; draw sketches and build models of landscape designs; construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscaped environments; advise clients on issues related to horticulture such as irrigation; breed, cultivate and study plants; and treat injured and diseased trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers and contractors, lawn service and tree care establishments, golf courses, nurseries and greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and national parks, or they may be self-employed.

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223 Technical occupations in civil, mechanical and industrial engineering
2231Civil engineering technologists and technicians

Civil engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals, or may work independently in fields such as structural engineering, municipal engineering, construction design and supervision, highways and transportation engineering, water resources engineering, geotechnical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by consulting engineering and construction companies, public works, transportation and other government departments and in many other industries.

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2232Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians

Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in mechanical engineering fields such as the design, development, maintenance and testing of machines, components, tools, heating and ventilating systems, geothermal power plants, power generation and power conversion plants, manufacturing plants and equipment. They are employed by consulting engineering, manufacturing and processing companies, institutions and government departments.

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2233Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians

Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the development of production methods, facilities and systems, and the planning, estimating, measuring and scheduling of work. They are employed by manufacturing and insurance companies, government departments, and establishments in other industries.

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2234Construction estimators

Construction estimators analyze costs of and prepare estimates on civil engineering, architectural, structural, electrical and mechanical construction projects. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and major electrical, mechanical and trade contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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224 Technical occupations in electronics and electrical engineering
2241Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians

Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the design, development, testing, production and operation of electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and in governments and a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries.

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2242Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)

Electronic service technicians service and repair household and business electronic equipment such as audio and video systems, computers and peripherals, office equipment and other consumer electronic equipment and assemblies. They are employed by electronic service and retail establishments, by wholesale distributors and within service departments of electronic manufacturing companies.

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2243Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics

Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics repair, maintain, calibrate, adjust, and install industrial measuring and controlling instrumentation. They are employed by pulp and paper processing companies, nuclear and hydro power generating companies, mining, petrochemical and natural gas companies, industrial instrument and other manufacturing companies, and by industrial instrument servicing establishments.

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2244Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors

Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors install, adjust, repair and overhaul aircraft instrument, electrical or avionics systems on aircraft. This unit group also includes avionics inspectors who inspect instrument, electrical and avionics systems following assembly, modification, repair or overhaul. They are employed by aircraft manufacturing, maintenance, repair and overhaul establishments and by airlines and other aircraft operators.

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225 Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology
2251Architectural technologists and technicians

Architectural technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical assistance to professional architects and civil design engineers in conducting research, preparing drawings, architectural models, specifications and contracts and in supervising construction projects. They are employed by architectural and construction firms, and governments.

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2252Industrial designers

Industrial designers conceptualize and produce designs for manufactured products. They are employed by manufacturing industries and private design firms or they may be self-employed.

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2253Drafting technologists and technicians

Drafting technologists and technicians prepare engineering designs, drawings and related technical information, in multidisciplinary engineering teams or in support of engineers, architects or industrial designers, or they may work independently. They are employed by consulting and construction companies, utility, resource and manufacturing companies, all levels of government and by a wide range of other establishments.

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2254Land survey technologists and technicians

Land survey technologists and technicians conduct or participate in surveys to determine the exact locations and relative positions of natural features and other structures on the earth's surface, underground and underwater. They are employed by all levels of government, architectural and engineering firms, and by private sector surveying establishments.

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2255Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology

Technical occupations in geomatics include aerial survey, remote sensing, geographic information systems, cartographic and photogrammetric technologists and technicians, who gather, analyze, interpret and use geospatial information for applications in natural resources, geology, environmental research and land use planning. Meteorological technologists and technicians observe weather and atmospheric conditions, record, interpret, transmit and report on meteorological data, and provide weather information to the agricultural, natural resources and transportation industries and the public. Geomatics technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of government, utilities, mapping, computer software, forestry, architectural, engineering and consulting firms and other related establishments. Meteorological technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of government, the media, natural resources, utilities and transportation companies and consulting firms.

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226 Other technical inspectors and regulatory officers
2261Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians

Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians operate radiographic, ultrasonic, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current and similar testing equipment to detect discontinuities in objects of various compositions and materials. They are employed by quality control, maintenance and safety departments of manufacturing, processing, transportation, energy and other companies and by private industrial inspection establishments.

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2262Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers

Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers inspect transportation vehicles such as aircraft, watercraft, automobiles and trucks and weighing and measuring devices such as scales and meters as well as industrial instruments, processes and equipment for conformity to government and industry standards and regulations. They are employed by government agencies and in the private sector.

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2263Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety

Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety evaluate and monitor health and safety hazards and develop strategies to control risks. They inspect restaurants, industrial establishments, municipal water systems, public facilities, institutions and other workplaces to ensure compliance with government regulations regarding sanitation, pollution control, the handling and storage of hazardous substances and workplace safety. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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2264Construction inspectors

Construction inspectors inspect the construction and maintenance of new and existing buildings, bridges, highways and industrial construction to ensure that specifications and building codes are observed and monitor work site safety. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, construction companies, architectural and civil engineering consulting firms or they may be self-employed.

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227 Transportation officers and controllers
2271Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors

Air pilots fly fixed wing aircraft and helicopters to provide air transportation and other services such as crop spraying and aerial surveying. Flight engineers assist air pilots with monitoring, troubleshooting and maintenance of aircraft systems and with pre- and post-flight inspections. Flying instructors teach flying techniques and procedures to student and licensed pilots. Air pilots, flight engineers and flight instructors are employed by airline and air freight companies, flying schools and by other public and private sector aircraft operators.

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2272Air traffic controllers and related occupations

Air traffic controllers direct air traffic within assigned airspace, and control moving aircraft and service vehicles at airports. Flight service specialists provide pilots with flight information essential to aviation safety. Flight dispatchers authorize airline flights over assigned routes. Air traffic controllers and flight service specialists are employed by NAV Canada and the Canadian Forces. Flight dispatchers are employed by airline and air services companies and by the Canadian Forces.

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2273Deck officers, water transport

Deck officers, water transport, operate and command ships or self-propelled vessels to transport passengers and cargo on oceans and coastal and inland waters, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of deck crews. This unit group also includes Canadian Coast Guard deck officers. They are employed by marine transportation companies and federal government departments.

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2274Engineer officers, water transport

Engineer officers, water transport, operate and maintain main engines, machinery and auxiliary equipment aboard ships and other self-propelled vessels, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of engine room crews. They are employed by marine transportation companies and federal government departments.

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2275Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators

Railway traffic controllers co-ordinate passenger and freight train traffic on railways. They are employed by rail transport companies. Marine traffic regulators monitor and regulate coastal and inland marine traffic within assigned waterways. They are employed by port, harbour, canal and lock authorities and by the Canadian Coast Guard.

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228 Technical occupations in computer and information systems
2281Computer network technicians

Computer network technicians establish, operate, maintain and co-ordinate the use of local and wide area networks (LANs and WANs), mainframe networks, hardware, software and related computer equipment. They set up and maintain Internet and intranet Web sites and Web-server hardware and software, and monitor and optimize network connectivity and performance. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors. Supervisors of computer network technicians are included in this unit group.

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2282User support technicians

User support technicians provide first-line technical support to computer users experiencing difficulties with computer hardware and with computer applications and communications software. They are employed by computer hardware manufacturers and retailers, software developers, in call centres and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors. They are also employed by independent technical support companies or they may be self-employed.

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2283Information systems testing technicians

Information systems testing technicians execute test plans to evaluate the performance of software applications and information and telecommunications systems. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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3 Health occupations

30 Professional occupations in nursing

301 Professional occupations in nursing
3011Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors

Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors co-ordinate and supervise the activities of registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel in the provision of patient care. They are employed in health care institutions such as hospitals, clinics and nursing homes, and in nursing agencies.

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3012Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses

Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses provide direct nursing care to patients, deliver health education programs and provide consultative services regarding issues relevant to the practice of nursing. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, community agencies, companies, private homes and public and private organizations or they may be self-employed.

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31 Professional occupations in health (except nursing)

311 Physicians, dentists and veterinarians
3111Specialist physicians

Specialists in clinical medicine diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders and act as consultants to other physicians. Specialists in laboratory medicine study the nature, cause and development of diseases in humans. Specialists in surgery perform and supervise surgical procedures. Specialists in clinical medicine usually work in private practice or in a hospital while those in laboratory medicine and in surgery usually work in hospitals. Residents in training to become specialist physicians are included in this unit group.

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3112General practitioners and family physicians

General practitioners and family physicians diagnose and treat the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of patients. They provide primary contact and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Residents in training to be general practitioners or family physicians are included in this unit group.

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3113Dentists

Dentists diagnose, treat, prevent and control disorders of the teeth and mouth. They work in private practice or may be employed in hospitals, clinics, public health facilities or universities.

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3114Veterinarians

Veterinarians prevent, diagnose and treat diseases and disorders in animals and advise clients on the feeding, hygiene, housing and general care of animals. They work in private practice or may be employed by animal clinics, farms, laboratories, government or industry.

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312 Optometrists, chiropractors and other health diagnosing and treating professionals
3121Optometrists

Optometrists examine eyes to assess and diagnose ocular diseases and disorders. They prescribe and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses and recommend treatments such as exercises to correct vision problems or ocular disorders. They work in private practice, clinics and community health centres.

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3122Chiropractors

Chiropractors diagnose, treat and prevent patients' neuromuscular-skeletal disorders of the spine, nervous system, pelvis and other body joints by adjusting the spinal column or through other corrective manipulation. They are usually in private practice or in clinics with other health practitioners.

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3124Allied primary health practitioners

Allied primary health practitioners include nurse practitioners, physician assistants and midwives who provide primary health care and treatment in conjunction with physicians and in collaboration with other health professionals. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants provide a range of health services to patients delivering preventive and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. Midwives provide full-course care to women and their babies during the pre- and post-natal period. Nurse practitioners are employed in community health centres, hospitals, clinics and rehabilitation centres. Physician assistants usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Midwives are employed in hospitals, clinics, birthing centres or in private practice.

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3125Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating

Other professionals in health diagnosing and treating diagnose and treat the diseases and injuries of patients. This unit group includes doctors of podiatric medicine, chiropodists and podiatrists, naturopaths, orthoptists and doctors of osteopathic medicine. They work in private practices, clinics and hospitals.

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313 Pharmacists, dietitians and nutritionists
3131Pharmacists

Community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists compound and dispense prescribed pharmaceuticals and provide consultative services to both clients and health care providers. They are employed in retail and health centre pharmacies, or they may be self-employed. Industrial pharmacists participate in the research, development, promotion and manufacture of pharmaceutical products. They are employed in pharmaceutical companies and government departments and agencies.

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3132Dietitians and nutritionists

Dietitians and nutritionists plan, implement and oversee nutrition and food service programs. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, home health-care agencies and extended care facilities, community health centres, the food and beverage industry, educational institutions, and government and sports organizations, or they may work as private consultants.

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314 Therapy and assessment professionals
3141Audiologists and speech-language pathologists

Audiologists diagnose, evaluate and treat individuals with peripheral and central hearing loss, tinnitus and balance problems. Speech-language pathologists diagnose, assess and treat human communication disorders including speech, fluency, language, voice and swallowing disorders. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists are employed in hospitals, community and public health centres, extended care facilities, day clinics, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions, or may work in private practice. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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3142Physiotherapists

Physiotherapists assess patients and plan and carry out individually designed treatment programs to maintain, improve or restore physical functioning and mobility, alleviate pain and prevent physical dysfunction in patients. They are employed in hospitals, clinics, industry, sports organizations, rehabilitation centres and extended care facilities, or they may work in private practice.

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3143Occupational therapists

Occupational therapists develop individual and group programs with people affected by illness, injury, developmental disorders, emotional or psychological problems and aging to maintain, restore or increase their ability to care for themselves and to engage in work, school or leisure. They also develop and implement health promotion programs with individuals, community groups and employers. They are employed in health care facilities, in schools, and by private and social services agencies, or they may be self-employed.

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3144Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment

Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment include specialized therapists who use techniques such as athletic, movement, art or recreational therapy to aid in the treatment of mental and physical disabilities or injuries. They are employed by establishments such as hospitals, rehabilitation centres, extended health care facilities, clinics, recreational centres, nursing homes, industry, educational institutions and sports organizations, or they may work in private practice.

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32 Technical occupations in health

321 Medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)
3211Medical laboratory technologists

Medical laboratory technologists conduct medical laboratory tests, experiments and analyses to assist in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, blood banks, community and private clinics, research facilities and post-secondary educational institutions. Medical laboratory technologists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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3212Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants

Medical laboratory technicians conduct routine medical laboratory tests and set up, clean and maintain medical laboratory equipment. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, clinics, research facilities, post-secondary educational institutions and government research laboratories. Pathologists' assistants assist at autopsies and examinations of surgical specimens or perform autopsies under a pathologist's supervision. They are usually employed in hospitals and universities.

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3213Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians

Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians provide technical support to veterinarians by caring for animals and assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of animal health disorders. They are employed in veterinary clinics, animal hospitals, animal shelters, humane societies, zoos, animal research laboratories, pharmaceutical companies and government. Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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3214Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists

Respiratory therapists assist physicians in the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disorders. Clinical perfusionists provide technical support to patients undergoing cardiac surgery and patients requiring cardio-respiratory support. Cardiopulmonary technologists assist physicians in the technical aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Respiratory therapists are employed in hospitals, extended care facilities, public health centres and respiratory home care companies. Clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists are primarily employed in hospitals. Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

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3215Medical radiation technologists

Medical radiation technologists operate radiographic and radiation therapy equipment to administer radiation treatment and produce images of body structures for the diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease. They are employed in hospitals, cancer treatment centres, clinics, radiological laboratories, colleges and universities. Medical radiation technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

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3216Medical sonographers

Medical sonographers operate ultrasound equipment to produce and record images of various parts of the body to aid physicians in monitoring pregnancies and in diagnosing cardiac, ophthalmic, vascular and other medical disorders. They are employed in clinics and hospitals. Medical sonographers who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

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3217Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists, n.e.c.

Cardiology technologists operate electrocardiogram equipment and use medical imaging technologies to record cardiac activity of patients to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of heart disease. Electrophysiological diagnostic technologists, not elsewhere classified, operate electroencephalographic, electromyographic and other electrophysiological diagnostic equipment to assist physicians in diagnosing diseases, injuries and abnormalities. Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group. They are employed in clinics, hospitals and medical laboratories.

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3219Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)

Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health) include medical technologists and technicians such as dietary technicians, pharmacy technicians, ocularists, prosthetists, orthotists, prosthetic technicians and orthotic technicians. Dietary technicians are employed in health care and commercial food service establishments such as hospitals, extended care facilities, nursing homes, schools, cafeterias and fast food outlets. Pharmacy technicians are employed in retail and hospital pharmacies, long-term care facilities and by pharmaceutical manufacturers. Ocularists are employed in custom ocular prosthetic laboratories, or they may be self-employed. Prosthetists, orthotists and prosthetic and orthotic technicians are employed in hospitals, clinics, prosthetics and orthotics laboratories, and prosthetic device manufacturing companies. Prosthetists and orthotists may also be self-employed.

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322 Technical occupations in dental health care
3221Denturists

Denturists examine patients and design, construct and repair removable dentures. Most denturists work in private practice.

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3222Dental hygienists and dental therapists

Dental hygienists provide dental hygiene treatment and services related to oral health promotion and disease and mouth injury prevention. They are employed in a variety of settings including dentists' offices, hospitals, private clinics, educational institutions, public health agencies or they may be self-employed. Dental therapists provide limited restorative dental treatment in addition to dental hygiene services. They are employed by the federal government and the provincial governments to provide services in rural and remote communities.

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3223Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants

Dental technologists and technicians design, prepare and fabricate dentures and dental devices as prescribed by dentists and other specialists. Dental laboratory assistants assist dental technologists and technicians in preparing and fabricating dentures and other dental devices. They are employed in dental laboratories. Dental technologists and technicians who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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323 Other technical occupations in health care
3231Opticians

Opticians fit clients with prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses, assist clients in the selection of eyeglass frames, arrange for the production of eyeglasses or contact lenses and mount lenses in eyeglass frames. They are employed in optical retail outlets or other establishments with optical dispensing departments, or they may be self-employed. Student opticians and opticians who are managers of optical retail outlets are included in this unit group.

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3232Practitioners of natural healing

Practitioners of natural healing provide health care to patients using traditional Chinese medicine techniques and other forms of treatment including acupuncture, herbology or reflexology to promote, maintain and restore the holistic health of patients. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, or are employed by clinics, health clubs and spas.

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3233Licensed practical nurses

Licensed practical nurses provide nursing care usually under the direction of medical practitioners, registered nurses or other health team members. Operating room technicians prepare patients and provide assistance to medical practitioners prior to and during surgery. Licensed practical nurses are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, companies, private homes and community health centres. Operating room technicians are employed in hospitals.

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3234Paramedical occupations

Workers in paramedical occupations administer pre-hospital emergency medical care to patients with injuries or medical illnesses and transport them to hospitals or other medical facilities for further medical care. They are employed by private ambulance services, hospitals, fire departments, government departments and agencies, manufacturing firms, mining companies and other private sector establishments. Paramedics who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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3236Massage therapists

Massage therapists assess soft tissues and joints of the body for treatment and prevention of dysfunction, injury, pain and physical disorders. They work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions.

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3237Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment

Other technical workers in therapy and assessment perform various technical therapy and assessment functions. Some may assist professionals such as audiologists, speech-language pathologists, ophthalmologists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists. They are employed in hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, educational institutions and in the private practices of the professionals they assist.

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34 Assisting occupations in support of health services

341 Assisting occupations in support of health services
3411Dental assistants

Dental assistants assist dentists, dental hygienists and dental therapists during the examination and treatment of patients and perform clerical functions. They work in dentists' offices, community health centres, clinics and in educational institutions.

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3413Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates

Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates assist nurses, hospital staff and physicians in the basic care of patients. They are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, assisted care facilities for the elderly and other health care establishments.

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3414Other assisting occupations in support of health services

Other assisting workers in support of health services provide services and assistance to health care professionals and other health care staff. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, offices of health care professionals, nursing homes, optical retail stores and laboratories, pharmacies and medical pathology laboratories.

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4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services

40 Professional occupations in education services

401 University professors and post-secondary assistants
4011University professors and lecturers

University professors and lecturers teach courses to undergraduate and graduate students and conduct research at universities. University professors who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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4012Post-secondary teaching and research assistants

Post-secondary teaching and research assistants assist university professors, community college and CEGEP teachers and other faculty members in teaching and research activities at universities and colleges.

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402 College and other vocational instructors
4021College and other vocational instructors

College and other vocational instructors teach applied arts, academic, technical and vocational subjects to students at community colleges, CEGEPs, agricultural colleges, technical and vocational institutes, language schools and other college level schools. This unit group also includes trainers who are employed by private training establishments, companies, community agencies and governments to deliver internal training or development courses. College teachers who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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403 Secondary and elementary school teachers and educational counsellors
4031Secondary school teachers

Secondary school teachers prepare and teach academic, technical, vocational or specialized subjects at public and private secondary schools. Secondary school teachers who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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4032Elementary school and kindergarten teachers

Elementary school and kindergarten teachers teach basic subjects such as reading, writing and arithmetic or specialized subjects such as English or French as a second language at public and private elementary schools.

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4033Educational counsellors

Educational counsellors advise current and prospective students on educational issues, career planning and personal development, and co-ordinate the provision of counselling services to students, parents, teachers, faculty and staff. They are employed by school boards and post-secondary educational institutions.

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41 Professional occupations in law and social, community and government services

411 Judges, lawyers and Quebec notaries
4111Judges

Judges adjudicate civil and criminal cases and administer justice in courts of law. Judges preside over federal and provincial courts.

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4112Lawyers and Quebec notaries

Lawyers and Quebec notaries advise clients on legal matters, represent clients before administration boards and draw up legal documents such as contracts and wills. Lawyers also plead cases, represent clients before tribunals and conduct prosecutions in courts of law. Lawyers are employed in law firms and prosecutor's offices. Quebec notaries are employed in notary offices. Both lawyers and Quebec notaries are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments and various business establishments or they may be self-employed. Articling students are included in this unit group.

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415 Social and community service professionals
4151Psychologists

Psychologists assess and diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients, provide therapy, conduct research and apply theory relating to behaviour and mental processes. Psychologists help clients work toward the maintenance and enhancement of psychological, physical, intellectual, emotional, social and interpersonal functioning. They work in private practice or in clinics, correctional facilities, hospitals, mental health facilities, rehabilitation centres, community service organizations, businesses, schools and universities, and in government and private research agencies.

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4152Social workers

Social workers help individuals, couples, families, groups, communities and organizations develop the skills and resources they need to enhance social functioning and provide counselling, therapy and referral to other supportive social services. Social workers also respond to other social needs and issues such as unemployment, racism and poverty. They are employed by hospitals, school boards, social service agencies, child welfare organizations, correctional facilities, community agencies, employee assistance programs and Aboriginal band councils, or they may work in private practice.

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4153Family, marriage and other related counsellors

Family, marriage and other related counsellors assist individuals and groups of clients to identify, understand and overcome personal problems and achieve personal objectives. They are employed by counselling centres, social service agencies, group homes, government agencies, family therapy centres, and health care and rehabilitation facilities, or they may work in private practice.

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4154Professional occupations in religion

Professionals in religion conduct religious services, administer the rites of a religious faith or denomination, provide spiritual and moral guidance and perform other functions associated with the practice of a religion. They perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship. They may also work in other institutions such as schools, hospitals and correctional facilities.

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4155Probation and parole officers and related occupations

Probation officers monitor the conduct and behaviour of criminal offenders serving probation terms. Parole officers monitor the reintegration of criminal offenders serving the remainder of sentences while conditionally released into the community on parole. Classification officers assess inmates and develop rehabilitation programs for criminal offenders who are incarcerated in correctional facilities. They are employed by federal and provincial governments and work in the community and in correctional facilities.

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4156Employment counsellors

Employment counsellors provide assistance and information to job seeker clients on all aspects of employment search and career planning. They also provide advice and information to employer clients regarding employment issues and human resources. They are employed by human resource departments of establishments, employment service organizations, consulting firms, correctional facilities and by federal and provincial governments. Supervisors of employment counsellors are included in this unit group.

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416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers
4161Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, prepare reports, provide consultation and advice and administer programs in a variety of areas related to the natural and applied sciences. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, computer and office furniture manufacturers, educational institutions, research organizations, consulting firms, environmental and conservation organizations, or they may be self-employed.

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4162Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts

Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts conduct research, monitor data, analyze information and prepare reports and plans to resolve economic and business problems and develop models to analyze, explain and forecast economic behaviour and patterns. They advise on matters such as finance, fiscal and monetary policy, international trade, agricultural and natural resource commodities and labour and industrial markets. They are employed by government departments and agencies and throughout the private sector in associations, unions, research organizations, banks and investment firms.

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4163Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants

Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants conduct research, formulate policies and manage programs to stimulate industrial and commercial business investment or tourism in urban and rural areas, or to promote commercial or industrial products and services. They are employed by government departments, international organizations, marketing firms and business associations or may be self-employed.

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4164Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, develop policy and implement or administer programs in areas such as consumer affairs, employment, home economics, immigration, law enforcement, corrections, human rights, housing, labour, family services, foreign aid and international development. They are employed by government departments and agencies, industry, hospitals, educational institutions, consulting establishments, professional associations, research institutes, non-government organizations and international organizations or they may be self-employed.

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4165Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, produce reports and administer health care policies and programs. They are employed by government departments and agencies, consulting establishments, universities, research institutes, hospitals, community agencies, educational institutions, professional associations, non-governmental organizations and international organizations.

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4166Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, produce reports and administer elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed by government departments, school boards, research institutes, professional associations and educational and other organizations throughout the public and private sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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4167Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Policy researchers, consultants and program officers in recreation, sports and fitness oversee and administer recreation, sports and fitness programs and activities, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop programs and policies related to recreation, sports and physical fitness. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, recreation, sports, fitness and health care facilities, retirement homes, community centres, sports and fitness consulting firms and organizations, or they may be self-employed.

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4168Program officers unique to government

Program officers unique to government are primarily concerned with the administration and operation of government institutions, such as Parliament, and activities unique to the operations of government, such as international relations, federal-provincial affairs, elections and tribunals.

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4169Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.

Other professional occupations in social science include anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, historians, linguists, political scientists, sociologists and other professional occupations in social science. They are employed in universities and throughout the public and private sectors.

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42 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services

421 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
4211Paralegal and related occupations

Paralegals prepare legal documents and conduct research to assist lawyers or other professionals. Independent paralegals provide legal services to the public as allowed by government legislation, or provide paralegal services on contract to law firms or other establishments. Notaries public administer oaths, take affidavits, sign legal documents and perform other activities according to the scope of their practice. Trademark agents advise clients on intellectual property matters. Paralegals are employed by law firms, by record search companies and in legal departments throughout the public and private sectors. Independent paralegals are usually self-employed. Notaries public are employed by government and in the public and private sectors or they may be self-employed. Trademark agents are employed by law firms and legal departments throughout the public and private sectors, trademark development and search firms or they may be self-employed.

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4212Social and community service workers

Social and community service workers administer and implement a variety of social assistance programs and community services, and assist clients to deal with personal and social problems. They are employed by social service and government agencies, mental health agencies, group homes, shelters, substance abuse centres, school boards, correctional facilities and other establishments.

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4214Early childhood educators and assistants

Early childhood educators plan, organize and implement programs for children between the ages of infancy and 12 years. Early childhood educator assistants provide care for infants and preschool- to school-age children under the guidance of early childhood educators. Early childhood educators and assistants lead children in activities to stimulate and develop their intellectual, physical and emotional growth and ensure their security and well-being. They are employed in child-care centres, day-care centres, kindergartens, agencies for exceptional children and other settings where early childhood education services are provided. Supervisors of early childhood educators and assistants are included in this unit group.

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4215Instructors of persons with disabilities

Instructors of persons with disabilities teach children and adults using a variety of techniques to facilitate communication, rehabilitation, social skills and increased independence. They are employed in rehabilitation centres, specialized educational institutes and throughout the school system.

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4216Other instructors

Other instructors teach courses, such as motor vehicle or motorcycle driving, sailing and navigation, sewing or other courses, which are outside of educational institutions. They are employed by driving schools, fabric retailers and other commercial establishments or they may be self-employed. This unit group also includes modelling and finishing school instructors, driver's licence examiners, who are employed by provincial governments and tutors who provide instruction in elementary or secondary school subjects.

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4217Other religious occupations

Workers in other religious occupations include brothers, nuns, monks, religious education workers and others who provide support to ministers of religion or to a religious community and who perform certain functions associated with the practice of a religion. They may perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship; in institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons; or in industrial facilities, corporate enterprises; or they may work in private practice.

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43 Occupations in front-line public protection services

431 Occupations in front-line public protection services
4311Police officers (except commissioned)

Police officers protect the public, detect and prevent crime and perform other activities directed at maintaining law and order. They are employed by municipal and federal governments and some provincial and regional governments.

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4312Firefighters

Firefighters carry out firefighting and fire prevention activities, and assist in other emergencies. They are employed by municipal, provincial and federal governments and by large industrial establishments that have internal firefighting services.

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4313Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces

Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces (NCOs) or members of other non-commissioned ranks provide collective defence measures to protect Canadian waters, land, airspace and other interests. All ranks of non-commissioned officers and members in the air force, army, and navy are included in this unit group.

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44 Care providers and educational, legal and public protection support occupations

441 Home care providers and educational support occupations
4411Home child care providers

Home child care providers care for children on an ongoing or short-term basis. They care for the well-being and physical and social development of children, assist parents with child care and may assist with household duties. They provide care primarily in their own homes or in the children's homes, where they may also reside. They are employed by private households and child-care agencies, or they may be self-employed.

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4412Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations

Home support workers provide personal care and companionship for seniors, persons with disabilities and convalescent clients. Care is provided within the client's residence, in which the home support worker may also reside. They are employed by home care and support agencies, private households, or they may be self-employed. Housekeepers perform housekeeping and other home management duties in private households and other non-institutional, residential settings.

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4413Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants

Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants support students, and assist teachers and counsellors with teaching and non-instructional tasks. They assist in areas of personal care, teaching and behaviour management under the supervision of teachers or other child care professionals. They are employed in public and private elementary, secondary and special needs schools and treatment centres.

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442 Legal and public protection support occupations
4421Sheriffs and bailiffs

Sheriffs execute and enforce court orders, warrants and writs, participate in seizure and sale of property and perform courtroom and other related duties. Bailiffs serve legal orders and documents, seize or repossess properties, evict tenants and perform other related activities. Sheriffs and bailiffs are employed by provincial or territorial courts, and bailiffs may be employed as officers of the court or in private service as agents for creditors.

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4422Correctional service officers

Correctional service officers guard offenders and detainees and maintain order in correctional institutions and other places of detention. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments. Correctional service officers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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4423By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c.

By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers enforce by-laws and regulations of provincial and municipal governments. They are employed by provincial and municipal governments and agencies.

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5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport

51 Professional occupations in art and culture

511 Librarians, archivists, conservators and curators
5111Librarians

Librarians select, develop, organize and maintain library collections and provide advisory services for users. They are employed in libraries or other establishments with library services throughout the public and private sectors.

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5112Conservators and curators

Conservators restore and conserve artifacts belonging to museums, galleries and owners of cultural property. Curators recommend the acquisition of museum artifacts and gallery works of art and research their artistic history. Conservators and curators are employed in museums, art galleries and universities. Conservators may be self-employed.

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5113Archivists

Archivists manage, process, store and disseminate information contained in an organization's archives. They acquire, store and research textual material, pictures, maps, architectural documents, electronic materials, films and videos, and sound recordings and multimedia materials. They are employed in archives, in the public and para-public sectors and in private sector organizations.

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512 Writing, translating and related communications professionals
5121Authors and writers

Authors and writers plan, research and write books, scripts, storyboards, plays, essays, speeches, manuals, specifications and other non-journalistic articles for publication or presentation. They are employed by advertising agencies, governments, large corporations, private consulting firms, publishing firms, multimedia/new-media companies and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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5122Editors

Editors review, evaluate and edit manuscripts, articles, news reports and other material for publication, broadcast or interactive media and co-ordinate the activities of writers, journalists and other staff. They are employed by publishing firms, magazines, journals, newspapers, radio and television networks and stations, and by companies and government departments that produce publications such as newsletters, handbooks, manuals and Web sites. Editors may also work on a freelance basis.

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5123Journalists

Journalists research, investigate, interpret and communicate news and public affairs through newspapers, television, radio and other media. They are employed by radio and television networks and stations, newspapers and magazines. Journalists may also work on a freelance basis.

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5125Translators, terminologists and interpreters

Translators translate written material from one language to another. Interpreters translate oral communication from one language to another during speeches, meetings, conferences, debates and conversation, or in court or before administrative tribunals. Terminologists conduct research to itemize terms connected with a certain field, define them and find equivalents in another language. Sign language interpreters use sign language to translate spoken language and vice versa during meetings, conversations, television programs or in other instances. Translators, terminologists and interpreters are employed by government, private translation and interpretation agencies, in-house translation services, large private corporations, international organizations and the media, or they may be self-employed. Sign language interpreters work in schools and courts, and for social service agencies, interpretation services, government services and television stations, or they may be self-employed.

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513 Creative and performing artists
5131Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations

Producers, directors, choreographers and professionals in related occupations oversee and control the technical and artistic aspects of film, television, video game, radio, dance and theatre productions. They are employed by film production companies, radio and television stations, video game companies, broadcast departments, advertising companies, sound recording studios, record production companies and dance companies. They may also be self-employed.

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5132Conductors, composers and arrangers

Conductors, composers and arrangers conduct bands and orchestras, compose musical works and arrange instrumental and vocal compositions. They are employed by symphony and chamber orchestras, bands, choirs, sound recording companies, and orchestras for ballet and opera performances, or they may be self-employed.

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5133Musicians and singers

Musicians and singers perform with orchestras, choirs, opera companies and popular bands in establishments such as concert halls, lounges and theatres and in film, television and recording studios. This unit group also includes music teachers who usually teach in conservatories, academies and private homes.

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5134Dancers

Dancers are employed by ballet and dance companies, television and film productions and nightclubs and similar establishments. This unit group also includes dance teachers who are usually employed by dance academies and dance schools.

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5135Actors and comedians

Actors and comedians perform roles in motion picture, television, theatre and radio productions to entertain a variety of audiences. They are employed by motion picture, television, theatre and other production companies. This unit group includes acting teachers employed by private acting schools.

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5136Painters, sculptors and other visual artists

Painters, sculptors and other visual artists create original paintings, drawings, sculptures, engravings and other artistic works. They are usually self-employed. This unit group also includes art instructors and teachers, who are usually employed by art schools.

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52 Technical occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport

521 Technical occupations in libraries, public archives, museums and art galleries
5211Library and public archive technicians

Library and public archive technicians assist users in accessing library or archive resources, assist in describing new acquisitions, participate in archive processing and storage, and conduct reference searches. They are employed by libraries and public archives.

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5212Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries

Workers in technical occupations related to museums and art galleries classify and catalogue museum artifacts and gallery works of art, construct and install exhibits and displays, restore, maintain and store museum and gallery collections, frame artwork, and perform other functions in support of curatorial and conservation activities. They are employed in museums and galleries. Picture framers and taxidermists may also be employed in retail settings or may be self-employed. This unit group also includes museum and other interpreters who conduct guided tours. They are employed by art galleries, museums, parks, aquariums, zoos, interpretive centres, botanical gardens, cultural centres, nature sanctuaries, historic and heritage sites, and other locations.

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522 Photographers, graphic arts technicians and technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
5221Photographers

Photographers operate still cameras to photograph people, events, scenes, materials, products and other subjects. They are employed by photographic studios, newspapers, magazines, museums and government, or they may be self-employed.

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5222Film and video camera operators

Film and video camera operators operate motion picture and video cameras and related equipment to record news, live events, films, videos and television broadcasts. They are employed by television networks and stations, motion picture and video production companies and in-house communications facilities of large corporations.

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5223Graphic arts technicians

Graphic arts technicians assist in conceptualizing a project, interpreting design specifications or sketches, preparing the page make-up, lay-out and lettering, and preparing production materials for press, electronic or multimedia publishing. They are employed by publishing, communications, advertising, marketing, printing and multimedia establishments, and by television and film production companies. They may also be self-employed.

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5224Broadcast technicians

Broadcast technicians install, set up, test, operate and repair electronic equipment used to record and transmit live and taped radio and television programs and to produce audio and video streaming broadcasts for the Internet. They are employed by radio and television broadcasting networks and stations, by broadcast equipment companies and by Internet-based communication providers.

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5225Audio and video recording technicians

Audio and video recording technicians operate equipment to record, mix and edit sound, music and videotape, for motion pictures, television and radio programs, videos, recordings and live events. They are employed by multimedia companies, film, video and concert production companies, sound recording firms, theatre and dance companies, educational establishments, clubs, hotels, bands, radio stations, television networks and video production and editing companies.

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5226Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts

Workers in other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts co-ordinate and perform specific activities for television, radio and motion picture productions, news broadcasts, theatre and stage productions, and other live or recorded productions. They are employed by television and radio stations and networks, recording studios, motion picture and video production companies, concert promoters and theatre, stage and dance companies.

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5227Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts

Support workers in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts perform support duties related to these fields. They are employed by television and radio stations and networks, recording studios, motion picture and video production companies and by theatre and stage companies.

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523 Announcers and other performers, n.e.c.
5231Announcers and other broadcasters

Announcers and other broadcasters read news, sports, weather, commercial and public service messages and host entertainment and information programs for broadcast on radio or television. They are primarily employed by radio and television stations and networks and by commercial firms that produce advertisements for radio or television.

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5232Other performers, n.e.c.

Other performers include circus performers, magicians, models, puppeteers and other performers. They are employed by circuses, nightclubs, and theatre, advertising and other production companies, or they may be self-employed.

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524 Creative designers and craftspersons
5241Graphic designers and illustrators

Graphic designers conceptualize and produce graphic art and visual materials to effectively communicate information for publications, advertising, films, packaging, posters, signs and interactive media such as Web sites and CDs. They are employed by advertising and graphic design firms, by establishments with advertising or communications departments and by multimedia production companies, or they may be self-employed. Graphic designers who are also supervisors, project managers or consultants are included in this unit group. Illustrators conceptualize and create illustrations to represent information through images. They are almost solely self-employed.

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5242Interior designers and interior decorators

Interior designers and interior decorators conceptualize and produce aesthetic, functional and safe designs for interior spaces in residential, commercial, cultural, institutional and industrial buildings. They are employed by architectural and interior design firms, retail establishments, construction companies, hospitals, airlines, hotel and restaurant chains, and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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5243Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers

Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers conceptualize and produce designs for film, television, theatre and video productions, garments and textiles, displays and exhibits, and for other creative items such as jewellery and trophies. Theatre designers are employed by performing arts and broadcasting companies and by festivals; fashion designers are employed by clothing and textile companies or may be self-employed; and exhibit designers are employed by museums and retail establishments. Other creative designers in this unit group are employed by manufacturing establishments or may be self-employed.

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5244Artisans and craftspersons

Artisans and craftspersons use manual and artistic skills to design and make ornamental objects, pottery, stained glass, jewellery, rugs, blankets, other handicrafts and artistic floral arrangements. Makers of musical instruments are also included in this unit group. Most craftspersons are self-employed. Artistic floral arrangers are usually employed in florist shops and floral departments of retail establishments, or may be self-employed. Craft instructors are also included in this unit group and are employed by artisan guilds, colleges, private studios and recreational organizations.

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5245Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products

Patternmakers in this unit group create master patterns for the production of garments, footwear and other textile, leather or fur products. They are employed by pattern manufacturers, textile, leather or fur products manufacturers, or they may be self-employed.

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525 Athletes, coaches, referees and related occupations
5251Athletes

Athletes participate in competitive sports events on an amateur or professional basis. They play team sports such as hockey, baseball, football and lacrosse; or compete in individual sports such as skiing, figure skating, boxing or track and field; or in games such as poker or chess. They are employed by professional team organizations or they may be self-employed.

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5252Coaches

Coaches prepare and train individual athletes or teams for competitive events. They are employed by national and provincial sports organizations, professional and amateur sports teams, sports clubs and universities or they may be self-employed. This unit group also includes sports scouts who identify and recruit athletes for professional sports teams. They are employed by professional sports organizations.

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5253Sports officials and referees

Sports officials and referees observe and enforce rules and regulations governing sporting events, athletic games and sports competitions. They are employed by national, provincial and local sporting commissions, organizations and leagues.

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5254Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness

Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness lead and instruct groups and individuals in recreational, sports, fitness or athletic programs. They are employed by community centres, sports and fitness clubs, outdoor centres, resorts, recreational facilities, health care facilities, retirement homes, correctional institutions, government departments, private businesses, tourism associations and similar establishments.

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6 Sales and service occupations

62 Retail sales supervisors and specialized sales occupations

621 Retail sales supervisors
6211Retail sales supervisors

Retail sales supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Retail salespersons (6421), Cashiers (6611), Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers (6622) and Other sales related occupations (6623). They are employed by stores and other retail businesses, wholesale businesses that sell on a retail basis to the public, rental service establishments and businesses involved in door-to-door soliciting and telemarketing.

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622 Technical sales specialists in wholesale trade and retail and wholesale buyers
6221Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade

Technical sales specialists, wholesale trade, sell a range of technical goods and services, such as scientific, agricultural and industrial products, electricity, telecommunications services and computer services, to governments and to commercial and industrial establishments in domestic and international localities. They are employed by establishments that produce or provide technical goods and services, such as pharmaceutical companies, industrial equipment manufacturing companies, grain elevators, computer services firms, engineering firms and hydroelectric companies, or they may be self-employed technical sales specialists/agents who contract their services to other companies. Technical sales specialists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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6222Retail and wholesale buyers

Retail and wholesale buyers buy merchandise for resale by retail or wholesale establishments and are usually responsible for the merchandising operations of retail or wholesale establishments. Retail and wholesale buyers who are supervisors and those who are assistants are included in this unit group.

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623 Insurance, real estate and financial sales occupations
6231Insurance agents and brokers

Insurance agents and brokers sell life, automobile, property, health and other types of insurance to individuals, businesses and public institutions. Insurance agents are employed by individual insurance companies or are independent representatives of specific insurance companies. Insurance brokers are employed by brokerage firms, or may work in partnerships or hold sole proprietorship. Supervisors of insurance agents are included in this unit group.

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6232Real estate agents and salespersons

Real estate agents and salespersons act as agents for the sale or purchase of houses, apartments, commercial buildings, land and other real estate. They are employed in the real estate industry.

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6235Financial sales representatives

Financial sales representatives sell basic deposit, investment and loan products and services to individuals and businesses. They work in banks, credit unions, trust companies and similar financial institutions.

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63 Service supervisors and specialized service occupations

631 Service supervisors
6311Food service supervisors

Food service supervisors supervise, direct and co-ordinate the activities of workers who prepare, portion and serve food. They are employed by hospitals and other health care establishments and by cafeterias, catering companies and other food service establishments.

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6312Executive housekeepers

Executive housekeepers direct and control the operations of housekeeping departments within hotels, hospitals and other establishments.

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6313Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors

Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of hotel accommodation service clerks, casino workers, reservation clerks and other travel and accommodations workers. They are employed by service establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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6314Customer and information services supervisors

Customer and information services supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Customer service representatives – financial institutions (6551) and Other customer and information services representatives (6552). They are employed by banks, trust companies, credit unions and similar financial institutions, retail establishments, contact centres, insurance, telephone and utility companies and other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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6315Cleaning supervisors

Cleaning supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Light duty cleaners (6731), Specialized cleaners (6732), and Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents (6733). They are employed by hospitals and other health care institutions, hotels, motels, schools and other educational institutions, commercial and industrial establishments, home and office cleaning establishments and by various specialized cleaning companies.

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6316Other services supervisors

Other services supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of dry cleaning, laundry, ironing, pressing and finishing workers, theatre ushers and attendants, sports and recreation club workers, commissionaires, security guards and other service workers. They are employed by service establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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632 Chefs and cooks
6321Chefs

Chefs plan and direct food preparation and cooking activities and prepare and cook meals and specialty foods. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other health care institutions, central food commissaries, clubs and similar establishments, and on ships.

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6322Cooks

Cooks prepare and cook a wide variety of foods. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other health care institutions, central food commissaries, educational institutions and other establishments. They are also employed aboard ships and at construction and logging campsites.

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633 Butchers and bakers
6331Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers - retail and wholesale

Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers in retail and wholesale prepare standard cuts of meat, poultry, fish and shellfish for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments. They are employed in supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish stores or may be self-employed. Butchers who are supervisors or heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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6332Bakers

Bakers prepare bread, rolls, muffins, pies, pastries, cakes and cookies in retail and wholesale bakeries and dining establishments. They are employed in bakeries, supermarkets, catering companies, hotels, restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions, or they may be self-employed. Bakers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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634 Specialized occupations in personal and customer services
6341Hairstylists and barbers

Hairstylists and barbers cut and style hair and perform related services. They are employed in hairstyling or hairdressing salons, barber shops, vocational schools, health care establishments and theatre, film and television establishments.

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6342Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners

Tailors, dressmakers and furriers make, alter and repair tailored clothing, dresses, coats and other made-to-measure garments. Milliners make, alter and repair hats. This unit group also includes alterationists who fit, alter and repair garments. They are employed by clothing retailers, clothing alteration shops, dry cleaners and garment manufacturing companies or they may be self-employed.

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6343Shoe repairers and shoemakers

Shoe repairers repair footwear and shoemakers make specialized and custom shoes and boots. They are employed in shoe repair shops or custom shoemaking establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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6344Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations

Jewellers and workers in related occupations fabricate, assemble, repair and appraise fine jewellery. Watch repairers and related workers repair, clean, adjust and fabricate parts for clocks and watches. They are employed by jewellery, clock and watch manufacturers and retail stores, by jewellery and watch repair shops or they may be self-employed.

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6345Upholsterers

Upholsterers cover furniture, fixtures and similar items with fabric, leather or other upholstery materials. They are employed by furniture, aircraft, motor vehicle and other manufacturing companies, furniture retail outlets and repair shops or they may be self-employed.

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6346Funeral directors and embalmers

Funeral directors co-ordinate and arrange all aspects of funeral services. Embalmers prepare the remains of deceased persons for public visitation and burial. Funeral directors and embalmers are employed by funeral homes.

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64 Sales representatives and salespersons - wholesale and retail trade

641 Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)
6411Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)

Sales representatives in wholesale trade (non-technical), sell non-technical goods and services to retail, wholesale, commercial, industrial, professional and other clients domestically and internationally. They are employed by establishments that produce or provide goods and services such as petroleum companies, food, beverage and tobacco producers, clothing manufacturers, motor vehicles and parts manufacturers, hotels, business services firms, and transportation companies. Auctioneers are included in this unit group. Sales representatives in wholesale trade who are supervisors are also included in this unit group.

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642 Retail salespersons
6421Retail salespersons

Retail salespersons sell, rent or lease a range of technical and non-technical goods and services directly to consumers. They are employed by stores and other retail businesses, as well as wholesale businesses that sell on a retail basis to the public.

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65 Service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations

651 Occupations in food and beverage service
6511Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses

Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses greet patrons and escort them to tables, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of food and beverage servers. They are employed in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, private clubs, cocktail lounges and similar establishments.

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6512Bartenders

Bartenders mix and serve alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, bars, taverns, private clubs, banquet halls and other licensed establishments. Supervisors of bartenders are included in this unit group.

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6513Food and beverage servers

Food and beverage servers take patrons' food and beverage orders and serve orders to patrons. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, bars, taverns, private clubs, banquet halls and similar establishments.

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652 Occupations in travel and accommodation
6521Travel counsellors

Travel counsellors advise clients on travel options and tour packages, make bookings and reservations, prepare tickets and receive payment. They are employed in travel agencies, transportation and tourism firms and hotel chains.

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6522Pursers and flight attendants

Pursers and flight attendants ensure the safety and comfort of passengers and crew members during flights. Ship pursers attend to the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships. Airline pursers and flight attendants are employed by airline companies. Ship pursers are employed by tour boat or cruise ship companies.

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6523Airline ticket and service agents

Airline ticket and service agents issue tickets, provide fare quotations, make reservations, conduct passenger check-in, trace missing baggage, arrange for cargo shipments and perform other related customer service duties to assist airline passengers. They are employed by airline companies.

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6524Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks

Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks, quote fares and rates, make reservations, issue tickets, process cargo shipments, check baggage and perform other related customer service duties to assist travellers. They are employed by bus and railway companies, freight forwarding and shipping companies, boat cruise operators and other public transit establishments and by travel wholesalers.

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6525Hotel front desk clerks

Hotel front desk clerks make room reservations, provide information and services to guests and receive payment for services. They are employed by hotels, motels and resorts.

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653 Tourism and amusement services occupations
6531Tour and travel guides

Tour and travel guides escort individuals and groups on trips, on sightseeing tours of cities and on tours of historical sites and establishments such as famous buildings, manufacturing plants, cathedrals and theme parks. They also provide descriptions and background information on interesting features. They are employed by tour operators, resorts and other establishments or may be self-employed.

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6532Outdoor sport and recreational guides

Outdoor sport and recreational guides organize and conduct trips or expeditions for sports enthusiasts, adventurers, tourists and resort guests. They are employed by private companies and resorts or may be self-employed.

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6533Casino workers

Casino workers operate gaming tables, assist patrons using slot machines, accept keno wagers, pay out winning bets and jackpots and collect losing bets. They are employed by casinos.

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654 Security guards and related security service occupations
6541Security guards and related security service occupations

Security guards and workers in related security service occupations guard and implement security measures to protect property against theft, vandalism and fire, control access to establishments, maintain order and enforce regulations at public events and within establishments, conduct private investigations for clients or employers and provide other protective services not elsewhere classified. They are employed by public or private security agencies, residential complexes, educational, cultural, financial and health institutions, retail establishments, businesses and industry, investigation service companies, transportation facilities, and organizations throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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655 Customer and information services representatives
6551Customer services representatives - financial institutions

Customer service representatives in financial institutions process customers' financial transactions and provide information on related banking products and services. They are employed by banks, trust companies, credit unions and similar financial institutions.

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6552Other customer and information services representatives

Other customer and information services representatives answer enquiries and provide information regarding an establishment's goods, services and policies and who provide customer services such as receiving payments and processing requests for services. They are employed by retail establishments, contact centres, insurance, telecommunications and utility companies and other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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656 Other occupations in personal service
6561Image, social and other personal consultants

Image, social and other personal consultants advise clients on their personal appearance, speaking style, manners or other behaviours in order to improve personal or business images. They are employed by beauty salons, fashion boutiques, modelling schools, image consulting companies, weight loss centres or they may be self-employed.

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6562Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations

Estheticians, electrologists and workers in related occupations provide facial and body treatments designed to enhance an individual's physical appearance. They are employed in beauty salons, electrolysis studios, scalp treatment and hair replacement clinics and other similar establishments and in cosmetic departments of retail establishments such as pharmacies and department stores, or they may be self-employed.

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6563Pet groomers and animal care workers

Animal care workers feed, handle, train and groom animals and assist veterinarians, animal health technologists and technicians and animal breeders. Pet groomers clip coats, bathe and otherwise groom pets. Workers in this group are employed by animal hospitals and clinics, animal shelters, breeding and boarding kennels, zoos, laboratories, retail pet shops, dog training schools, pet grooming establishments, or may be self-employed.

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6564Other personal service occupations

Workers in other personal service occupations provide psychic consulting, fortune-telling, astrological services and other personal services. They are employed by call centres and personal service establishments, or are self-employed.

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66 Sales support occupations

661 Cashiers
6611Cashiers

Cashiers operate cash registers, optical price scanners, computers or other equipment to record and accept payment for the purchase of goods, services and admissions. They are employed in stores, restaurants, theatres, recreational and sports establishments, currency exchange booths, government offices, business offices and other service, retail and wholesale establishments.

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662 Other sales support and related occupations
6621Service station attendants

Service station attendants employed in automotive service stations sell fuel and other automotive products and perform such services as fuelling, cleaning, lubricating and performing minor repairs to motor vehicles. Those employed in marinas sell fuel, rent boats and related equipment, and maintain marina facilities.

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6622Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers

Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers pack customers' purchases, price items, stock shelves with merchandise, and fill mail and telephone orders. They are employed in retail establishments, such as grocery, hardware and department stores, and in warehouses.

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6623Other sales related occupations

Workers in other sales related occupations sell goods or services during home demonstrations or by telephone soliciting, retail exhibitions or street vending. They are employed by a wide range of retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturers, telemarketing companies and call centres, or they may be self-employed.

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67 Service support and other service occupations, n.e.c.

671 Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations
6711Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations

Food counter attendants and food preparers prepare, heat and finish cooking simple food items and serve customers at food counters. Kitchen helpers, food service helpers and dishwashers clear tables, clean kitchen areas, wash dishes, and perform various other activities to assist workers who prepare or serve food and beverages. They are employed by restaurants, cafés, hotels, fast food outlets, cafeterias, hospitals and other establishments.

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672 Support occupations in accommodation, travel and amusement services
6721Support occupations in accommodation, travel and facilities set-up services

Workers in support occupations in accommodation, travel and facilities set-up services carry hotel guests' luggage and escort guests to their rooms, carry travellers' luggage at airports, in railway stations and aboard ships, clean and maintain public areas and passengers' rooms aboard ships and trains, and set up rooms and associated furnishings, commercial displays, exhibits, equipment and booths in facilities and establishments. They are employed by hotels, conference centres, retail establishments, passenger transport companies and throughout the private and public sectors.

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6722Operators and attendants in amusement, recreation and sport

Operators and attendants in amusement, recreation and sport assist patrons, collect tickets and fees and supervise the use of recreational and sports equipment. They are employed by amusement parks, fairs, exhibitions, carnivals, arenas, billiard parlours, bowling alleys, golf courses, ski centres, tennis clubs, campgrounds and other recreational and sports facilities.

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673 Cleaners
6731Light duty cleaners

Light duty cleaners clean lobbies, hallways, offices and rooms of hotels, motels, resorts, hospitals, schools, office buildings and private residences. They are employed by hotels, motels, resorts, recreational facilities, hospitals and other institutions, building management companies, cleaning service companies and private individuals.

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6732Specialized cleaners

Specialized cleaners clean and refurbish building exteriors, carpets, chimneys, industrial equipment, ventilation systems, windows and other surfaces, using specialized equipment and techniques. They are employed by specialized cleaning service companies or they may be self-employed.

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6733Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents

Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents clean and maintain the interior and exterior of commercial, institutional and residential buildings and their surrounding grounds. Building superintendents employed in large establishments are responsible for the operation of the establishment and may also supervise other workers. They are employed by office and apartment building management companies, condominium corporations, educational institutions, health care facilities, recreational and shopping facilities, religious, industrial and other establishments.

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674 Other service support and related occupations, n.e.c.
6741Dry cleaning, laundry and related occupations

Dry cleaning and laundry machine operators operate machines to dry-clean or launder garments and other articles. Dry cleaning and laundry inspectors and assemblers check finished garments and other articles to ensure that they meet required standards for dry-cleaning, laundering and pressing, and assemble and bag finished garments and other articles. This unit group also includes workers who iron, press or otherwise finish garments and household articles. They are employed in dry cleaning, laundry and fur cleaning establishments, and in the laundries of hotels, hospitals and other institutions.

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6742Other service support occupations, n.e.c.

Workers in other service support occupations perform a range of services not elsewhere identified. They are employed in a wide range of establishments; places of employment are usually indicated in the job title.

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7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations

72 Industrial, electrical and construction trades

720 Contractors and supervisors, industrial, electrical and construction trades and related workers
7201Contractors and supervisors, machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades and related occupations

Contractors and supervisors in machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades and related occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers classified in the following unit groups: Machinists and machining and tooling inspectors (7231), Tool and die makers (7232), Sheet metal workers (7233), Boilermakers (7234), Structural metal and platework fabricators and fitters (7235), Ironworkers (7236), Welders and related machine operators (7237) and Machining tool operators (9417). They are employed by structural, platework and related metal products fabrication, manufacturing and erecting companies and machine shops. Contractors may be self-employed.

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7202Contractors and supervisors, electrical trades and telecommunications occupations

Contractors and supervisors in electrical trades and telecommunications occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers classified in the following unit groups: Electricians (7241), Industrial electricians (7242), Power system electricians (7243), Electrical power line and cable workers (7244), Telecommunications line and cable workers (7245), Telecommunications installation and repair workers (7246) and Cable television service and maintenance technicians (7247). They are employed in a wide range of establishments; places of employment are indicated in the above unit group descriptions. Contractors may be self-employed.

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7203Contractors and supervisors, pipefitting trades

Contractors and supervisors in pipefitting trades supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers classified in the following unit groups: Plumbers (7251), Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers (7252) and Gas fitters (7253). They are employed by construction companies, mechanical, plumbing and pipefitting trade contractors and maintenance departments of industrial, commercial and manufacturing establishments. Contractors may be self-employed.

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7204Contractors and supervisors, carpentry trades

Contractors and supervisors in carpentry trades supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers classified in the following unit groups: Carpenters (7271) and Cabinetmakers (7272). They are employed by construction companies, carpentry contractors, maintenance departments of industrial establishments, and custom furniture and fixture manufacturing or repair companies. Contractors may be self-employed.

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7205Contractors and supervisors, other construction trades, installers, repairers and servicers

Contractors and supervisors, other construction trades, installers, repairers and servicers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of various tradespersons, installers, repairers and servicers classified in the following minor groups: Masonry and plastering trades (728), Other construction trades (729) and Other installers, repairers and servicers (744). They are employed by a wide range of establishments; places of employment are indicated in the unit group descriptions. Contractors may be self-employed. This unit group also includes prefabricated product installation and service contractors and proprietors of some repair and service establishments.

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723 Machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades
7231Machinists and machining and tooling inspectors

Machinists set up and operate a variety of machine tools to cut or grind metal, plastic or other materials to make or modify parts or products with precise dimensions. Machining and tooling inspectors inspect machined parts and tooling in order to maintain quality control standards. They are employed by machinery, equipment, motor vehicle, automotive parts, aircraft and other metal products manufacturing companies and by machine shops.

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7232Tool and die makers

Tool and die makers make, repair and modify custom-made, prototype or special tools, dies, jigs, fixtures and gauges using various metals, alloys and plastics which require precise dimensions. They are employed primarily in manufacturing industries such as automobile, aircraft, metal fabrication, electrical machinery and plastics, and in tool and die, mould making and machine shops. This unit group also includes metal patternmakers and metal mould makers.

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7233Sheet metal workers

Sheet metal workers fabricate, assemble, install and repair sheet metal products. They are employed by sheet metal fabrication shops, sheet metal products manufacturing companies, sheet metal work contractors and various industrial sectors.

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7234Boilermakers

Boilermakers fabricate, assemble, erect, test, maintain and repair boilers, vessels, tanks, towers, heat exchangers and other heavy-metal structures. They are employed in boiler fabrication, manufacturing, shipbuilding, construction, electric power generation and similar industrial establishments.

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7235Structural metal and platework fabricators and fitters

Structural metal and platework fabricators and fitters fabricate, assemble, fit and install steel or other metal components for buildings, bridges, tanks, towers, boilers, pressure vessels and other similar structures and products. They are employed in structural steel, boiler and platework fabrication plants and by heavy machinery manufacturing and shipbuilding companies.

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7236Ironworkers

Ironworkers fabricate, erect, hoist, install, repair and service structural ironwork, precast concrete, concrete reinforcing materials, curtain walls, ornamental iron and other metals used in the construction of buildings, bridges, highways, dams and other structures and equipment. They are employed by construction ironwork contractors.

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7237Welders and related machine operators

Welders operate welding equipment to weld ferrous and non-ferrous metals. This unit group also includes machine operators who operate previously set up production welding, brazing and soldering equipment. They are employed by companies that manufacture structural steel and platework, boilers, heavy machinery, aircraft and ships and other metal products, and by welding contractors and welding shops, or they may be self-employed.

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724 Electrical trades and electrical power line and telecommunications workers
7241Electricians (except industrial and power system)

Electricians (except industrial and power system) lay out, assemble, install, test, troubleshoot and repair electrical wiring, fixtures, control devices and related equipment in buildings and other structures. They are employed by electrical contractors and maintenance departments of buildings and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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7242Industrial electricians

Industrial electricians install, maintain, test, troubleshoot and repair industrial electrical equipment and associated electrical and electronic controls. They are employed by electrical contractors and maintenance departments of factories, plants, mines, shipyards and other industrial establishments.

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7243Power system electricians

Power system electricians install, maintain, test and repair electrical power generation, transmission and distribution system equipment and apparatus. They are employed by electric power generation, transmission and distribution companies.

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7244Electrical power line and cable workers

Electrical power line and cable workers construct, maintain and repair overhead and underground electrical power transmission and distribution systems. They are employed by electric power generation, transmission and distribution companies, electrical contractors and public utility commissions.

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7245Telecommunications line and cable workers

Telecommunications line and cable workers install, repair and maintain telecommunication lines and cables. They are employed by cable television companies and by telephone and other telecommunications services.

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7246Telecommunications installation and repair workers

Telecommunications installation and repair workers install, test, maintain and repair telephones, telephone switching equipment and telecommunications equipment related to transmission and processing of voice, video signals and other data over a variety of media including fibre optics, microwave, radio and satellite. They are employed by telephone and other telecommunications transmission services establishments.

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7247Cable television service and maintenance technicians

Cable television service technicians install, maintain and repair cable and satellite television and Internet signal and associated equipment in homes and commercial buildings. Cable television maintenance technicians maintain and repair cable television transmission and distribution systems and associated hardware. They are employed by cable and satellite television companies.

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725 Plumbers, pipefitters and gas fitters
7251Plumbers

Plumbers install, repair and maintain pipes, fixtures and other plumbing equipment used for water distribution and waste water disposal in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. They are employed in maintenance departments of factories, plants and similar establishments, by plumbing contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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7252Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers

Steamfitters and pipefitters lay out, assemble, fabricate, maintain, troubleshoot and repair piping systems carrying water, steam, chemicals and fuel in heating, cooling, lubricating and other process piping systems. Sprinkler system installers fabricate, install, test, maintain and repair water, foam, carbon dioxide and dry chemical sprinkler systems in buildings for fire protection purposes. Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers are employed in maintenance departments of factories, plants and similar establishments, and by pipefitting and sprinkler system contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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7253Gas fitters

Gas fitters install, inspect, repair and maintain gas lines and gas equipment such as meters, regulators and heating units in residential, commercial and industrial establishments. They are employed by gas utility companies and gas servicing companies.

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727 Carpenters and cabinetmakers
7271Carpenters

Carpenters construct, erect, install, maintain and repair structures and components of structures made of wood, wood substitutes, lightweight steel and other materials. They are employed by construction companies, carpentry contractors, and maintenance departments of factories, plants and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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7272Cabinetmakers

Cabinetmakers use a variety of woods and laminates to construct and repair wooden cabinets, furniture, fixtures and related products. They are employed by furniture manufacturing or repair companies, construction companies and cabinetmaking contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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728 Masonry and plastering trades
7281Bricklayers

Bricklayers lay bricks, concrete blocks, stone and other similar materials to construct or repair walls, arches, chimneys, fireplaces and other structures in accordance with blueprints and specifications. They are employed by construction companies and bricklaying contractors or they may be self-employed.

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7282Concrete finishers

Concrete finishers smooth and finish freshly poured concrete, apply curing or surface treatments and install, maintain and restore various masonry structures such as foundations, floors, ceilings, sidewalks, roads, patios and highrise buildings. They are employed by construction companies, cement and concrete contractors and manufacturers of precast concrete products, or they may be self-employed.

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7283Tilesetters

Tilesetters cover interior and exterior walls, floors and ceilings with ceramic, marble and quarry tile, mosaics or terrazzo. They are employed by construction companies and masonry contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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7284Plasterers, drywall installers and finishers and lathers

Plasterers apply finish, and maintain and restore plaster or similar materials, on interior and exterior walls, ceilings and building partitions to produce plain or decorative surfaces. Drywall installers and finishers install and finish drywall sheets and various types of ceiling systems. Lathers install support framework for ceiling systems, interior and exterior walls and building partitions. They are employed by construction companies and by plastering, drywalling and lathing contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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729 Other construction trades
7291Roofers and shinglers

Roofers install, repair or replace flat roofs as well as shingles, shakes or other roofing tiles on sloped roofs. Shinglers install and replace shingles, tiles and similar coverings on sloped roofs. They are employed by roofing and general contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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7292Glaziers

Glaziers cut, fit, install and replace glass in residential, commercial and industrial buildings, on exterior walls of buildings and other structures and in furniture and other products. They are employed by construction glass installation contractors, retail service and repair shops and glass fabrication shops, or they may be self-employed.

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7293Insulators

Insulators apply insulation materials to plumbing, air-handling, heating, cooling and refrigeration systems, piping equipment and pressure vessels, and walls, floors and ceilings of buildings and other structures, to prevent or reduce the passage of heat, cold, sound or fire. They are employed by construction companies and insulation contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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7294Painters and decorators (except interior decorators)

Painters and decorators apply paint, wallpaper and other finishes to interior and exterior surfaces of buildings and other structures. They are employed by construction companies, painting contractors and building maintenance contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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7295Floor covering installers

Floor covering installers install carpet, wood, linoleum, vinyl and other resilient floor coverings in residential, commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. They are employed by construction companies, floor-covering contractors and carpet outlets, or they may be self-employed.

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73 Maintenance and equipment operation trades

730 Contractors and supervisors, maintenance trades and heavy equipment and transport operators
7301Contractors and supervisors, mechanic trades

Contractors and supervisors in mechanic trades supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers classified in unit groups within the following minor groups: Machinery and transportation equipment mechanics (except motor vehicle) (731), Automotive service technicians (732) and Other mechanics (733). They are employed in a wide range of establishments; places of employment are indicated in the unit group descriptions of the above minor groups. Contractors may be self-employed.

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7302Contractors and supervisors, heavy equipment operator crews

Contractors and supervisors of heavy equipment operator crews supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers classified in the following unit groups: Crane operators (7371), Drillers and blasters – surface mining, quarrying and construction (7372), Water well drillers (7373), Longshore workers (7451), Material handlers (7452), Heavy equipment operators (except crane) (7521), Public works maintenance equipment operators and related workers (7522), Railway yard and track maintenance workers (7531), and Public works and maintenance labourers (7621). They are employed in a wide range of establishments; places of employment are indicated in the above unit group descriptions. Contractors may be self-employed.

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7303Supervisors, printing and related occupations

Supervisors of printing and related occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers who produce camera work and printing plates and cylinders, process film, print text and illustrations on paper, metal and other material, and bind and finish printed products. They are employed by companies that specialize in commercial printing or one of its compon