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Hierarchy and structure

The National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016, is based on the NOC 2011 four-tiered hierarchical structure. The first level contains 10 broad occupational categories, the second level is made of 40 major groups, the third level consists of 140 minor groups and the last level comprises 500 unit groups.

The structure presented below allows you to drilldown from one of the broad occupational categories to its associated unit groups.

Structure breakdown – 2016

0 Management occupations

00 Senior management occupations

001 Legislators and senior management
0011Legislators

Legislators participate in the activities of a federal, provincial, territorial or local government legislative body or executive council, band council or school board as elected or appointed members.

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0012Senior government managers and officials

Senior government managers and officials plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the major activities of municipal or regional governments or of provincial, territorial or federal departments, boards, agencies or commissions. They establish the direction to be taken by these organizations in accordance with legislation and policies made by elected representatives or legislative bodies.

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0013Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services

Senior managers in financial, communications and other business services are usually appointed by a board of directors, to which they report. They work either alone or in conjunction with the board of directors to develop and establish objectives for the company, and to develop or approve policies and programs. They plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the operations of their organization in relation to established objectives. They work in establishments throughout the telecommunications, finance, insurance, real estate, and data processing, hosting and related services industries as well as other business service industries or they may own and operate their own business.

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0014Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations

Senior managers in health, education, social and community services and membership organizations plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, membership and other organizations or institutions that deliver health, education, social or community services. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these organizations, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They are employed in health care organizations, educational services, social and community services and membership organizations or they may own and operate their own business.

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0015Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c.

Senior managers in trade, broadcasting and other customer services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, trade, broadcasting and other service industry companies. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They work in establishments in broadcasting and related media services, wholesale trade, retail trade, accommodation and food service, and other services not elsewhere classified or they may own and operate their own business.

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0016Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities

Senior managers in construction, transportation, production and utilities plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the overall operations of goods production, utility, transportation and construction companies. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with other members of a board of directors. They work in establishments throughout the following industries: fishing, forestry, logging and agriculture; mining, oil and gas extraction; construction; transportation and warehousing; printing; manufacturing; and utilities or they may own and operate their own business.

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01 Specialized middle management occupations

011 Administrative services managers
0111Financial managers

Financial managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of financial and accounting departments. They develop and implement the financial policies and systems of establishments. Financial managers establish performance standards and prepare various financial reports for senior management. They are employed in financial and accounting departments in companies throughout the private sector and in government.

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0112Human resources managers

Human resources managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources and personnel departments, and develop and implement policies, programs and procedures regarding human resource planning, recruitment, collective bargaining, training and development, occupation classification and pay and benefit administration. They represent management and participate actively on various joint committees to maintain ongoing relations between management and employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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0113Purchasing managers

Purchasing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a purchasing department and develop and implement the purchasing policies of a business or institution. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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0114Other administrative services managers

Other administrative services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate departments responsible for corporate governance and regulatory compliance, records management, security services, admissions and other administrative services. Also included in this unit group are managers responsible for departments involved in two or more of the following activities: finance, human resources, purchasing or administrative services. They are employed throughout the public and private sector.

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012 Managers in financial and business services
0121Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers

Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of departments or establishments that provide insurance, mortgage, real estate and investment services. They are generally responsible for business development and must ensure that their group reaches performance levels related to established objectives. They are employed by insurance companies, real estate firms, stockbrokers, investment dealers, mortgage brokers and security and commodity exchanges.

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0122Banking, credit and other investment managers

Banking, credit and other investment managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of financial establishments or operational departments within such establishments, or credit departments in industrial and commercial establishments. They oversee business development and manage overall performance in accordance with established strategic directions and policies. Banking managers are employed by banks, trust companies and credit unions. Credit managers are employed by credit departments in department stores, utility companies, car dealerships, insurance companies or other industrial or commercial organizations. Other investment managers are employed by credit card companies, consumer loan companies, mutual fund investment firms, mortgage investment companies or other financial establishments concerned with extending loans and financing and investments.

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0124Advertising, marketing and public relations managers

Advertising, marketing, public relations and e-business managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial and e-business advertising, marketing and public relations. They are employed by commercial and industrial establishments, government departments, and advertising, marketing and public relations firms or consulting businesses.

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0125Other business services managers

Other business services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that provide services to business, and ensure the quality of those services and client satisfaction. They work in fields such as management consulting, market research, personnel and payroll services, contact centre services and security services.

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013 Managers in communication (except broadcasting)
0131Telecommunication carriers managers

Telecommunication carriers managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a telecommunications establishment, department or facility. They are employed by wired, wireless, satellite and other telecommunications carriers.

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0132Postal and courier services managers

Postal and courier services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities and operations in postal facilities and in establishments that provide courier services. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation and by courier companies.

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02 Specialized middle management occupations

021 Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
0211Engineering managers

Engineering managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an engineering department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments and by consulting engineering and scientific research companies.

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0212Architecture and science managers

Architecture and science managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an architecture, landscape architecture, scientific or statistical department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments as well as by architectural firms and scientific research companies.

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0213Computer and information systems managers

Computer and information systems managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of organizations that analyze, design, develop, implement, operate and administer computer and telecommunications software, networks and information systems. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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03 Specialized middle management occupations

031 Managers in health care
0311Managers in health care

Managers in health care plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care services, such as diagnosis and treatment, nursing and therapy, within institutions, and in other settings, that provide health care services. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes and other health care organizations.

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04 Specialized middle management occupations

041 Managers in public administration
0411Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration

Government managers in health and social policy development and program administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and administration of health care policies, social policies and related programs designed to protect and promote the health and social welfare of individuals and communities. They are employed by all levels of government.

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0412Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration

Government managers in economic analysis, policy development and program administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate economic policy, research and programs in areas of government activity such as taxation, international trade, labour markets, transportation or agriculture. They also plan and direct policies and programs to promote industrial and commercial business development in urban and rural areas. They are employed by all levels of government.

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0413Government managers - education policy development and program administration

Government managers in education policy development and program administration organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and administration of elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed by all levels of government.

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0414Other managers in public administration

Other managers in public administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development of policies and programs which govern the daily operations of legislatures and other activities unique to government such as intergovernmental affairs and elections. They are employed by all levels of government.

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042 Managers in education and social and community services
0421Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training

Administrators in post-secondary education and vocational training include faculty administrators and registrars of colleges or universities and administrators of vocational training schools. Faculty administrators manage the academic and related activities of faculties of colleges or universities. Registrars manage registration activities and academic records systems of colleges or universities. Administrators of vocational training schools manage the operations of vocational schools specializing in trades, technology, business or other vocational subjects.

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0422School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education

School principals plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of teachers and other staff of an elementary or secondary school. They are employed by public and private schools. Administrators of elementary and secondary education plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the academic affairs of a school system. They are employed by school boards.

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0423Managers in social, community and correctional services

Managers in social, community and correctional services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the programs and activities of social service and community agencies, correctional institutions, counselling departments, labour organizations, professional associations, political parties and non-governmental organizations.

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043 Managers in public protection services
0431Commissioned police officers

Commissioned police officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate police force administration and police activities such as maintaining law and order and detecting and preventing crime. They are employed by municipal, provincial and federal governments. This unit group includes officers from the rank of staff sergeant to police commissioner. Commissioned officers in the railway police are also included in this unit group.

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0432Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers

Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate firefighting operations and fire prevention activities in fire departments. They are employed by municipal and federal governments and by industrial establishments with firefighting services.

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0433Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces

Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces plan, organize, command and evaluate the activities of personnel in the Canadian Armed Forces. All ranks of commissioned officers in the Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Navy are included in this unit group.

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05 Specialized middle management occupations

051 Managers in art, culture, recreation and sport
0511Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers

Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of libraries, archives, museums, art galleries or departments within such institutions. They are employed in libraries, archives, museums and non-retail art galleries.

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0512Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts

Managers in publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate operations within publishing firms, film, theatre and record production companies and broadcasting facilities. They are employed by radio and television stations, by newspaper, periodical and book publishing firms, and by film, theatre, record and video production companies.

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0513Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors

Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of comprehensive recreational, sports and fitness programs and services, national or provincial sports governing agencies and professional athletic teams. They are employed by municipalities, community and private recreational and fitness organizations, sports governing agencies and professional athletic team organizations.

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06 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services

060 Corporate sales managers
0601Corporate sales managers

Corporate sales managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial, institutional, e-business and wholesale and retail sales. They are employed by commercial, industrial and wholesale and retail trade establishments.

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062 Retail and wholesale trade managers
0621Retail and wholesale trade managers

Retail and wholesale trade managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that sell merchandise or services on a retail or wholesale basis. They are employed by retail and wholesale sales establishments or they may own and operate their own store.

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063 Managers in food service and accommodation
0631Restaurant and food service managers

Restaurant and food service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of restaurants, bars, cafeterias and other food and beverage services. They are employed in food and beverage service establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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0632Accommodation service managers

Accommodation service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an accommodation establishment or of a department within such an establishment. They are employed by hotels, motels, resorts, student residences and other accommodation establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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065 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
0651Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.

Managers in customer and personal services include managers of establishments that provide services such as dry cleaning, hairdressing or residential cleaning. This unit group also includes managers of schools that provide non-vocational instruction in driving, languages, music, dance, art, cooking or fashion.

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07 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities

071 Managers in construction and facility operation and maintenance
0711Construction managers

Construction managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a construction company or a construction department within a company, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and by construction departments of companies outside the construction industry.

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0712Home building and renovation managers

Home building managers own, operate and manage companies engaged in the construction of new residential homes. Home renovation managers own, operate and manage companies engaged in the renovation of existing residential homes.

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0714Facility operation and maintenance managers

Facility operation managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of commercial, transportation and recreational facilities and the included real estate. Facility operation managers are employed by a wide range of establishments, such as airports, harbours, canals, shopping centres, convention centres, warehouses and recreational facilities. Maintenance managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the maintenance department within commercial, industrial, institutional, recreational and other facilities. Maintenance managers are employed by a wide range of establishments, such as office buildings, shopping centres, airports, harbours, warehouses, grain terminals, universities, schools and sports facilities, and by the maintenance and mechanical engineering departments of manufacturing and other industrial establishments.

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073 Managers in transportation
0731Managers in transportation

Managers in transportation operations plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of transportation companies such as railways, airlines, bus lines, municipal transit systems, shipping lines and trucking companies, under the direction of a general manager or another senior manager. Managers in transportation freight traffic plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate companies or departments responsible for the transportation and movement of goods, under the direction of a general manager or another senior manager. They are employed by transportation, freight forwarding and shipping companies and by transportation departments of companies in retail and manufacturing sectors and utilities.

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08 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities

081 Managers in natural resources production and fishing
0811Managers in natural resources production and fishing

Managers in natural resources production and fishing plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments in forestry and logging, mining and quarrying, oil and gas drilling, production and servicing operations, and commercial fishing.

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082 Managers in agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture
0821Managers in agriculture

Managers in agriculture plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations and functions of farms. They are responsible for growing crops, raising and breeding livestock, poultry and other animals and marketing farm products. They usually own and operate their own establishment.

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0822Managers in horticulture

Managers in horticulture plan, organize, direct and control the activities of nursery and greenhouse staff who grow and market trees, shrubs, flowers and plants.

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0823Managers in aquaculture

Managers in aquaculture manage operations of facilities which cultivate and harvest fish, shellfish or marine plants for replenishment of wildlife stocks or for commercial sale. They are employed by public or private fish hatcheries and commercial aquatic farms, or they may be self-employed.

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09 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities

091 Managers in manufacturing and utilities
0911Manufacturing managers

Manufacturing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a manufacturing establishment or of a production department within a manufacturing establishment, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by manufacturing companies.

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0912Utilities managers

Utilities managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of utility companies or services of heating fuel distribution companies. The services provided include treatment of water and waste, distribution of water, electricity, natural gas and heating oil to residential, commercial and industrial consumers, waste disposal and waste recycling. They are employed in public and private sector utilities and in heating fuel distribution companies.

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1 Business, finance and administration occupations

11 Professional occupations in business and finance

111 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals
1111Financial auditors and accountants

Financial auditors examine and analyze the accounting and financial records of individuals and establishments to ensure accuracy and compliance with established accounting standards and procedures. Accountants plan, organize and administer accounting systems for individuals and establishments. They are employed by private sector accounting and auditing firms or departments and public sector accounting and auditing departments or units, or they may be self-employed. Articling students in accounting firms are included in this unit group.

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1112Financial and investment analysts

Financial and investment analysts collect and analyze financial information such as economic forecasts, trading volumes and the movement of capital, financial backgrounds of companies, historical performances and future trends of stocks, bonds and other investment instruments to provide financial and investment or financing advice for their company or their company's clients. Their studies and evaluations cover areas such as takeover bids, private placements, mergers or acquisitions. Financial analysts are employed by a wide range of establishments throughout the private and public sector, such as banks, brokerage houses, insurance companies, investment companies, manufacturing firms, trust companies, utility companies and underwriting firms. Investment analysts are employed primarily by brokerage houses and fund management companies.

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1113Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers

Securities agents and investment dealers buy and sell stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other securities for individual investors, pension fund managers, banks, trust companies, insurance firms and other establishments. Brokers buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at stock exchanges on behalf of investment dealers. They are employed by investment companies, stock brokerage firms, stock and commodity exchanges and other establishments in the securities industry.

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1114Other financial officers

Other financial officers include professional occupations in finance such as financial planners, financial examiners and inspectors, financial investigators, financial underwriters, mortgage brokers and trust officers. They are employed by banks, trust companies, investment firms and governments, or they may be self-employed.

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112 Human resources and business service professionals
1121Human resources professionals

Human resources professionals develop, implement and evaluate human resources and labour relations policies, programs and procedures and advise employers and employees on human resources matters. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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1122Professional occupations in business management consulting

Professionals in business management consulting occupations provide services to management such as analyzing the structure, operations, managerial methods or functions of an organization in order to propose, plan and implement improvements. They are employed by management consulting firms and throughout the public and private sectors or are self-employed.

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1123Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations

Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations includes professionals in advertising, marketing and public relations who analyse, develop and implement communication and promotion strategies and information programs, analyse advertising needs and develop appropriate advertising and marketing plans, publicize activities and events, and maintain media relations on behalf of businesses, governments and other organizations, and for performers, athletes, writers and other talented individuals. They are employed by consulting firms, advertising agencies, corporations, associations, government, social agencies, museums, galleries, public interest groups, and cultural and other organizations, or they may be self-employed. Agents such as entertainment, literary and sports agents are included in this unit group.

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12 Administrative and financial supervisors and administrative occupations

121 Administrative services supervisors
1211Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers

Supervisors of general office and administrative support workers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following minor groups: General office workers (141) and Office equipment operators (142). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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1212Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers

Supervisors of finance and insurance office workers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Accounting and related clerks (1431), Payroll administrators (1432), Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (1434) and Collectors (1435). They are employed by banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, and by other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1213Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers

Supervisors of library, correspondence and related information workers supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Library assistants and clerks (1451), Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks (1452) and Survey interviewers and statistical clerks (1454). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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1214Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations

Supervisors of mail and message distribution occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following minor group: Mail and message distribution occupations (151). They are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier companies, governments and large corporations.

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1215Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations

Supervisors of supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following minor group: Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations (152). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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122 Administrative and regulatory occupations
1221Administrative officers

Administrative officers oversee and implement administrative procedures, establish work priorities, conduct analyses of administrative operations and co-ordinate acquisition of administrative services such as office space, supplies and security services. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors. Administrative officers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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1222Executive assistants

Executive assistants co-ordinate administrative procedures, public relations activities and research and analysis functions for members of legislative assemblies, ministers, deputy ministers, corporate officials and executives, committees and boards of directors. They are employed by governments, corporations and associations.

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1223Human resources and recruitment officers

Human resources and recruitment officers identify and advertise job vacancies, recruit candidates, and assist in the selection and reassignment of employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1224Property administrators

Property administrators perform administrative duties and co-ordinate activities related to the management and rental of investment property and real estate on behalf of property and strata property owners. They are employed by property, real estate and strata services management companies, property development companies and by government.

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1225Purchasing agents and officers

Purchasing agents and officers purchase general and specialized equipment, materials, land or access rights and business services for use or for further processing by their establishment. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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1226Conference and event planners

Conference and event planners plan, organize and co-ordinate conferences, conventions, meetings, seminars, exhibitions, trade shows, festivals and other events. They are employed by tourism associations, trade and professional associations, convention and conference centres, governments and by conference and event planning companies, or they may be self-employed.

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1227Court officers and justices of the peace

Court officers co-ordinate the administrative and procedural functions of federal, provincial and territorial courts, such as scheduling trials and overseeing the maintenance of court records. Justices of the peace administer oaths, issue subpoenas, summonses and warrants and perform other court-related duties such as conducting bail hearings. They are employed by federal, provincial and territorial courts.

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1228Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers

Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers administer and enforce laws and regulations related to immigration, customs, border crossing, tax revenue, employment insurance and other government benefit services. They are employed by government agencies.

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124 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical
1241Administrative assistants

Administrative assistants perform a variety of administrative duties in support of managerial and professional employers. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1242Legal administrative assistants

Legal administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in law offices, legal departments of large firms, real estate companies, land title offices, municipal, provincial and federal courts and government.

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1243Medical administrative assistants

Medical administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in doctor's offices, hospitals, medical clinics and other medical settings.

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125 Court reporters, transcriptionists, records management technicians and statistical officers
1251Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations

Court reporters record and transcribe verbatim the proceedings of courts, legislative assemblies and committees, and prepare transcripts for use by judges, tribunals and quasi-judicial panels. They are employed by courts of law, provincial and federal legislative assemblies and committees, or they may be self-employed. Medical transcriptionists record, transcribe and edit dictation by physicians and other health care providers, surgical proceedings, health-related reports and other medical documentation. They are employed by hospitals, medical clinics and doctors' offices, or they may be self-employed. Closed captioners and other transcriptionists are included in this unit group.

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1252Health information management occupations

Health information management workers collect, code, record, review and manage health information. They are employed by hospitals, clinics, workplace health and safety boards, health record consulting firms and other health care establishments. Health information management workers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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1253Records management technicians

Records management technicians operate and maintain systems for the collection, classification, retrieval and retention of records, images, documents and information. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1254Statistical officers and related research support occupations

Statistical officers and workers in related research support occupations provide statistical and research support services to a wide range of businesses and organizations. These workers conduct statistical routines, monitor trends, compile data and prepare charts, graphs, summaries and reports in support of organizational information needs and research activities. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors. Statistical officers who are also supervisors are included in this unit group.

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13 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations

131 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
1311Accounting technicians and bookkeepers

Accounting technicians and bookkeepers maintain complete sets of books, keep records of accounts, verify the procedures used for recording financial transactions, and provide personal bookkeeping services. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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1312Insurance adjusters and claims examiners

Insurance adjusters investigate insurance claims and determine the amount of loss or damages covered by insurance policies. They are employed in claims departments of insurance companies or as independent adjusters. Insurance claims examiners examine claims investigated by insurance adjusters and authorize payments. They are employed at head offices or branches of insurance companies.

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1313Insurance underwriters

Insurance underwriters review and evaluate insurance applications to determine insurance risks, insurance premiums and extent of insurance coverage according to company policies. They are employed at head and branch offices of insurance companies.

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1314Assessors, valuators and appraisers

Assessors, valuators and appraisers determine the value of land, businesses, estates and other real property, for purposes of sale, purchase, taxation or disposal of assets. Appraisers also determine the value of personal and household items. Assessors, valuators and appraisers are employed by government agencies, real estate firms and other private companies, or they may be self-employed.

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1315Customs, ship and other brokers

Customs brokers clear goods through customs and to their destination on behalf of importer and exporter clients. Shipbrokers buy and sell cargo space on ships and buy and sell ships, yachts and other watercraft on behalf of clients. This unit group also includes other brokers who negotiate commercial transactions, logistics or other services between parties on behalf of clients. They are employed by customs, ship or other brokerage establishments or may be self-employed.

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14 Office support occupations

141 General office workers
1411General office support workers

General office support workers prepare correspondence, reports, statements and other material, operate office equipment, answer telephones, verify, record and process forms and documents such as contracts and requisitions and perform general clerical duties according to established procedures. They are employed in offices throughout the public and private sectors.

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1414Receptionists

Receptionists greet people arriving at offices, hospitals and other establishments, direct visitors to appropriate person or service, answer and forward telephone calls, take messages, schedule appointments and perform other clerical duties. They are employed by hospitals, medical and dental offices and other offices throughout the public and private sectors. Telephone operators are included in this group.

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1415Personnel clerks

Personnel clerks assist personnel officers and human resources specialists and compile, maintain and process information relating to staffing, recruitment, training, labour relations, performance evaluations and classifications. They are employed in personnel departments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1416Court clerks

Court clerks perform support functions in courts of law, such as calling court to order, preparing court dockets and maintaining exhibits. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal courts.

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142 Office equipment operators
1422Data entry clerks

Data entry clerks input coded, statistical, financial and other information into computerized databases, spreadsheets or other templates using a keyboard, mouse, or optical scanner, speech recognition software or other data entry tools. They are employed in the private and public sectors.

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1423Desktop publishing operators and related occupations

Desktop publishing operators and workers in related occupations use computers to enter copy into a typesetting system or operate typesetting output equipment to produce text that is ready to print. They are employed by firms that specialize in typesetting, commercial printing companies, publishing and printing companies and various establishments in the public and private sectors that have in-house printing departments.

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143 Financial, insurance and related administrative support workers
1431Accounting and related clerks

Accounting and related clerks calculate, prepare and process bills, invoices, accounts payable and receivable, budgets and other financial records according to established procedures. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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1432Payroll administrators

Payroll administrators collect, verify and process payroll information, determine pay and benefit entitlements for employees, maintain accurate payroll records, and provide payroll information within a department, company or other establishment. They are employed by payroll administration companies and by establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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1434Banking, insurance and other financial clerks

Banking, insurance and other financial clerks compile, process and maintain banking, insurance and other financial information. They are employed by banks, credit companies, private and public insurance establishments, investment firms and other financial establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1435Collectors

Collectors collect payments on overdue accounts and bad cheques and locate debtors to make collection arrangements. They are employed by collection agencies, utility companies, department stores, loan companies, banks and credit unions, and by financial and licensing departments within governments.

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145 Library, correspondence and other clerks
1451Library assistants and clerks

Library assistants and clerks issue and receive library materials, sort and shelve books and provide general library information to users. They also perform clerical functions. Library clerks are employed by libraries or other establishments with library services.

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1452Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks

Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks write correspondence, proofread material for accuracy, compile material for publication, verify, record and process forms and documents, such as applications, licences, permits, contracts, registrations and requisitions, and perform other related clerical duties in accordance with established procedures, guidelines and schedules. They are employed by newspapers, periodicals, publishing firms and by establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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1454Survey interviewers and statistical clerks

Survey interviewers contact individuals to gather information for market research, public opinion polls or election and census enumeration. Statistical clerks code and compile interview and other data into reports, lists, directories and other documents. They are employed by market research and polling firms, government departments and agencies, utility companies, contact centres and other establishments. This unit group also includes clerks who observe and record information on traffic flow.

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15 Distribution, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations

151 Mail and message distribution occupations
1511Mail, postal and related workers

Mail, postal and related workers process and sort mail and parcels in post offices, mail processing plants and internal mail rooms, and clerks who serve customers and record transactions at sales counters and postal wickets. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier and parcel express companies and establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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1512Letter carriers

Letter carriers sort and deliver mail, record delivery of registered mail and collect money for cash-on-delivery parcels. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation.

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1513Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors

Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors pick up and deliver letters, parcels, packages, newspapers, flyers and other items within and between establishments. They are employed by courier service companies and other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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152 Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
1521Shippers and receivers

Shippers and receivers ship, receive and record the movement of parts, supplies, materials, equipment and stock to and from an establishment. They are employed in the public sector and by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.

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1522Storekeepers and partspersons

Storekeepers and partspersons sort, store and issue parts and supplies for use by the establishment in which they work and for sale to the public. They are employed by manufacturing companies, warehouses, retail and wholesale establishments, mining, forestry and construction companies, repair shops, hospitals and other establishments.

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1523Production logistics co-ordinators

Production logistics co-ordinators co-ordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within an establishment, prepare work and production schedules and monitor the progress of production and construction projects. They are employed by manufacturing and construction companies, printing and publishing companies and other industrial establishments.

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1524Purchasing and inventory control workers

Purchasing and inventory control workers process purchasing transactions and maintain inventories of materials, equipment and stock. They are employed by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies, government agencies and other establishments.

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1525Dispatchers

Dispatchers operate radios and other telecommunication equipment to dispatch emergency vehicles and to co-ordinate the activities of drivers and other personnel. They are employed by police, fire and health departments, other emergency service agencies, taxi, delivery and courier services, trucking and utilities companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.

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1526Transportation route and crew schedulers

Transportation route and crew schedulers prepare operational and crew schedules for transportation equipment and operating personnel. They are employed by municipal transit commissions, truck, delivery and courier companies, railways, airlines and by other transportation establishments in both the private and public sectors.

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2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations

21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences

211 Physical science professionals
2111Physicists and astronomers

Physicists conduct theoretical and applied research to extend knowledge of natural phenomena and to develop new processes and devices in fields such as electronics, communications, power generation and distribution, aerodynamics, optics and lasers, remote sensing, biotechnology, medicine and health. They are employed by electronic, electrical and aerospace manufacturing companies, telecommunications companies, power utilities, university and government research laboratories, hospitals and by a wide range of other processing, manufacturing, and research and consulting firms. Astronomers conduct observational and theoretical research to extend knowledge of the universe. They are employed by government and universities.

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2112Chemists

Chemists conduct research and analysis in support of industrial operations, product and process development, quality control, environmental control, medical diagnosis and treatment, biotechnology, nanotechnology and other applications. They also conduct theoretical, experimental and applied research into basic chemical and biochemical processes to create or synthesize new products and processes. They are employed in research, development and quality control laboratories; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries; mineral, metal and pulp and paper industries; and a wide variety of manufacturing, utility, health, educational and government establishments.

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2113Geoscientists and oceanographers

Geoscientists include geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who conduct programs of exploration and research to extend knowledge of the structure, composition and processes of the earth, to locate, identify and extract hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater resources and to assess and mitigate the effects of development and waste disposal projects on the environment. Oceanographers conduct programs of exploration and research on ocean processes and phenomena, biological, chemical and physical characteristics of oceans, interactions with atmospheric and geological environments and impacts of human activity on oceans and marine ecosystems. Geoscientists are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology, geophysics and engineering firms and by governments and educational institutions, or they may be self-employed. Oceanographers are employed by governments, educational institutions and private companies engaged in exploration of seafloor deposits and seafarming areas, or they may be self-employed.

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2114Meteorologists and climatologists

Meteorologists and climatologists analyze and forecast weather, provide consultation on atmospheric phenomena and conduct research into the processes and phenomena of weather, climate and atmosphere. They are employed by all levels of government, natural resources and utility companies, the media and private consulting firms, or they may be self-employed.

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2115Other professional occupations in physical sciences

Professionals in other physical sciences occupations conduct theoretical and applied research in fields of physical science. Metallurgists, soil scientists and physical scientists and researchers are included in this unit group. They are employed by governments, educational institutions and a wide range of industrial establishments.

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212 Life science professionals
2121Biologists and related scientists

Biologists and related scientists conduct basic and applied research to extend knowledge of living organisms, to manage natural resources, and to develop new practices and products related to medicine and agriculture. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, environmental consulting companies, resource and utilities companies, chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnical companies and health and educational institutions.

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2122Forestry professionals

Forestry professionals conduct research, develop plans and administer and direct programs related to the management and harvesting of forest resources. They are employed by the forest industry, provincial and federal governments, consulting companies, educational institutions and other industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2123Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists

Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists provide assistance and advice to farmers on all aspects of farm management, cultivation, fertilization, harvesting, soil erosion and composition, disease prevention, nutrition, crop rotation and marketing. They are employed by businesses, institutions and governments that assist the farming community, or they may be self-employed.

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213 Civil, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers
2131Civil engineers

Civil engineers plan, design, develop and manage projects for the construction or repair of buildings, earth structures, powerhouses, roads, airports, railways, rapid transit facilities, bridges, tunnels, canals, dams, ports and coastal installations and systems related to highway and transportation services, water distribution and sanitation. They may also specialize in foundation analysis, building and structural inspection, surveying, geomatics and municipal planning. They are employed by engineering consulting companies, in all levels of government, by construction firms and in many other industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2132Mechanical engineers

Mechanical engineers research, design and develop machinery and systems for heating, ventilating and air conditioning, power generation, transportation, processing and manufacturing. They also perform duties related to the evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems. They are employed by consulting firms, by power-generating utilities and in a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2133Electrical and electronics engineers

Electrical and electronics engineers design, plan, research, evaluate and test electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and by a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries and government.

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2134Chemical engineers

Chemical engineers research, design, and develop chemical processes and equipment, oversee the operation and maintenance of industrial chemical, plastics, pharmaceutical, resource, pulp and paper, and food processing plants and perform duties related to chemical quality control, environmental protection and biochemical or biotechnical engineering. They are employed in a wide range of manufacturing and processing industries, consulting firms, government, research and educational institutions.

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214 Other engineers
2141Industrial and manufacturing engineers

Industrial and manufacturing engineers conduct studies, and develop and supervise programs to achieve the best use of equipment, human resources, technology, materials and procedures to enhance efficiency and productivity. They are employed in consulting firms, manufacturing and processing companies, in government, financial, health care and other institutions, or they may be self-employed.

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2142Metallurgical and materials engineers

Metallurgical and materials engineers conduct studies of the properties and characteristics of metals and other non-metallic materials and plan, design and develop machinery and processes to concentrate, extract, refine and process metals, alloys and other materials such as ceramics, semiconductors and composite materials. They are employed in consulting engineering firms, mining, metal processing and manufacturing companies, and in government, research and educational institutions.

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2143Mining engineers

Mining engineers plan, design, organize and supervise the development of mines, mine facilities, systems and equipment; and prepare and supervise the extraction of metallic or non-metallic minerals and ores from underground or surface mines. They are employed by mining companies, consulting engineering companies, manufacturers, government and in educational and research institutions.

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2144Geological engineers

Geological engineers conduct geological and geotechnical studies to assess suitability of locations for civil engineering, mining and oil and gas projects; and plan, design, develop and supervise programs of geological data acquisition and analysis and the preparation of geological engineering reports and recommendations. They are employed in consulting engineering companies, electrical utilities, mining and petroleum companies and in government and research and educational institutions.

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2145Petroleum engineers

Petroleum engineers conduct studies for the exploration, development and extraction of oil and gas deposits; and plan, design, develop and supervise projects for the drilling, completion, testing and re-working of oil and gas wells. They are employed by petroleum producing companies, consulting companies, well logging or testing companies, government, and research and educational institutions.

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2146Aerospace engineers

Aerospace engineers research, design and develop aerospace vehicles, aerospace systems and their components, and perform duties related to their testing, evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance. They are employed by aircraft and spacecraft manufacturers, air transport carriers, and in government and educational and research institutions.

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2147Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)

Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) research, plan, design, develop, modify, evaluate and integrate computer and telecommunications hardware and related equipment, and information and communication system networks including mainframe systems, local and wide area networks, fibre-optic networks, wireless communication networks, intranets, the Internet and other data communications systems. They are employed by computer and telecommunication hardware manufacturers, by engineering, manufacturing and telecommunications firms, in information technology consulting firms, by governmental, educational and research institutions and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2148Other professional engineers, n.e.c.

Other professional engineers include agricultural and bio-resource engineers, biomedical engineers, engineering physicists and engineering scientists, marine and naval engineers, textile engineers and other specialized engineering occupations.

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215 Architects, urban planners and land surveyors
2151Architects

Architects conceptualize, plan and develop designs for the construction and renovation of commercial, institutional and residential buildings. They are employed by architectural firms, private corporations and governments, or they may be self-employed.

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2152Landscape architects

Landscape architects conceptualize, design, plan and manage the construction of natural, cultural and built landscape development for commercial projects, office complexes, parks, golf courses and residential development. They are employed by government environmental and development agencies, landscape consulting firms and by architectural and engineering firms, or they are self-employed.

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2153Urban and land use planners

Urban and land use planners develop plans and recommend policies for managing land use, physical facilities and associated services for urban and rural areas and remote regions. They are employed by all levels of government, land developers, engineering and other consulting companies, or may work as private consultants.

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2154Land surveyors

Land surveyors plan, direct and conduct legal surveys to establish the location of real property boundaries, contours and other natural or human-made features, and prepare and maintain cross-sectional drawings, official plans, records and documents pertaining to these surveys. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, private sector land surveying establishments, real estate development, natural resource, engineering and construction firms, or they may be self-employed.

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216 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
2161Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries

Mathematicians and statisticians research mathematical or statistical theories, and develop and apply mathematical or statistical techniques for solving problems in such fields as science, engineering, business and social science. Actuaries apply mathematics, statistics, probability and risk theory to assess potential financial impacts of future events. Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries are employed by universities, governments, bank and trust companies, insurance companies, pension benefit consulting firms, professional associations, and science and engineering consulting firms.

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217 Computer and information systems professionals
2171Information systems analysts and consultants

Information systems analysts and consultants analyze and test systems requirements, develop and implement information systems development plans, policies and procedures, and provide advice on a wide range of information systems issues. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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2172Database analysts and data administrators

Database analysts design, develop and administer data management solutions using database management software. Data administrators develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2173Software engineers and designers

Software engineers and designers research, design, evaluate, integrate and maintain software applications, technical environments, operating systems, embedded software, information warehouses and telecommunications software. They are employed in information technology consulting firms, information technology research and development firms, and information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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2174Computer programmers and interactive media developers

Computer programmers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for software applications, data processing applications, operating systems-level software and communications software. Interactive media developers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for Internet and mobile applications, computer-based training software, computer games, film, video and other interactive media. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2175Web designers and developers

Web designers and developers research, design, develop and produce Internet and Intranet sites. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, advertising agencies or they may be self-employed.

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22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences

221 Technical occupations in physical sciences
2211Chemical technologists and technicians

Chemical technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in chemical engineering, chemical and biochemical research and analysis, industrial chemistry, chemical quality control and environmental protection. They are employed by research and development and quality control laboratories, consulting engineering companies, in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and a variety of other manufacturing and processing industries, and by utilities, health, educational and government establishments.

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2212Geological and mineral technologists and technicians

Geological and mineral technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in the fields of oil and gas exploration and production, geophysics, petroleum engineering, geology, mining and mining engineering, mineralogy, extractive and physical metallurgy, metallurgical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology and engineering firms, and by governments and educational institutions as well as by a variety of manufacturing, construction and utilities companies.

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222 Technical occupations in life sciences
2221Biological technologists and technicians

Biological technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals working in fields such as agriculture, resource management, environmental protection, plant and animal biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology and health sciences, or may work independently in these fields. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, manufacturers of food products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology companies, health, research and educational institutions, environmental consulting companies, and resource and utilities companies.

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2222Agricultural and fish products inspectors

Agricultural and fish products inspectors inspect agricultural and fish products for conformity to prescribed production, storage and transportation standards. They are employed by government departments and agencies and by private sector food processing companies. Supervisors of agricultural and fish products inspectors are also included in this unit group.

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2223Forestry technologists and technicians

Forestry technologists and technicians may work independently or perform technical and supervisory functions in support of forestry research, forest management, forest harvesting, forest resource conservation and environmental protection. They are employed by the forest industry sector, provincial and federal governments, consulting firms, and other industries and institutions, or they may be self-employed.

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2224Conservation and fishery officers

Conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers enforce federal and provincial regulations established for the protection of fish, wildlife and other natural resources and collect and relay information on resource management. They are employed by federal and provincial government departments.

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2225Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists

Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists survey and assess landscapes; draw sketches and build models of landscape designs; construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscaped environments; advise clients on issues related to horticulture such as irrigation; breed, cultivate and study plants; and treat injured and diseased trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers and contractors, lawn service and tree care establishments, golf courses, nurseries and greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and national parks, or they may be self-employed.

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223 Technical occupations in civil, mechanical and industrial engineering
2231Civil engineering technologists and technicians

Civil engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals, or may work independently in fields such as structural engineering, municipal engineering, construction design and supervision, highways and transportation engineering, water resources engineering, geotechnical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by consulting engineering and construction companies, public works, transportation and other government departments and in many other industries.

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2232Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians

Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in mechanical engineering fields such as the design, development, maintenance and testing of machines, components, tools, heating and ventilating systems, geothermal power plants, power generation and power conversion plants, manufacturing plants and equipment. They are employed by consulting engineering, manufacturing and processing companies, institutions and government departments.

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2233Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians

Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the development of production methods, facilities and systems, and the planning, estimating, measuring and scheduling of work. They are employed by manufacturing and insurance companies, government departments, and establishments in other industries.

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2234Construction estimators

Construction estimators analyze costs of and prepare estimates on civil engineering, architectural, structural, electrical and mechanical construction projects. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and major electrical, mechanical and trade contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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224 Technical occupations in electronics and electrical engineering
2241Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians

Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the design, development, testing, production and operation of electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and in governments and a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries.

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2242Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)

Electronic service technicians service and repair household and business electronic equipment such as audio and video systems, computers and peripherals, office equipment and other consumer electronic equipment and assemblies. They are employed by electronic service and retail establishments, by wholesale distributors and within service departments of electronic manufacturing companies.

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2243Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics

Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics repair, maintain, calibrate, adjust, and install industrial measuring and controlling instrumentation. They are employed by pulp and paper processing companies, nuclear and hydro power generating companies, mining, petrochemical and natural gas companies, industrial instrument and other manufacturing companies, and by industrial instrument servicing establishments.

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2244Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors

Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors install, adjust, repair and overhaul aircraft instrument, electrical or avionics systems on aircraft. This unit group also includes avionics inspectors who inspect instrument, electrical and avionics systems following assembly, modification, repair or overhaul. They are employed by aircraft manufacturing, maintenance, repair and overhaul establishments and by airlines and other aircraft operators.

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225 Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology
2251Architectural technologists and technicians

Architectural technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical assistance to professional architects and civil design engineers in conducting research, preparing drawings, architectural models, specifications and contracts and in supervising construction projects. They are employed by architectural and construction firms, and governments.

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2252Industrial designers

Industrial designers conceptualize and produce designs for manufactured products. They are employed by manufacturing industries and private design firms or they may be self-employed.

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2253Drafting technologists and technicians

Drafting technologists and technicians prepare engineering designs, drawings and related technical information, in multidisciplinary engineering teams or in support of engineers, architects or industrial designers, or they may work independently. They are employed by consulting and construction companies, utility, resource and manufacturing companies, all levels of government and by a wide range of other establishments.

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2254Land survey technologists and technicians

Land survey technologists and technicians conduct or participate in surveys to determine the exact locations and relative positions of natural features and other structures on the earth's surface, underground and underwater. They are employed by all levels of government, architectural and engineering firms, and by private sector surveying establishments.

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2255Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology

Technical occupations in geomatics include aerial survey, remote sensing, geographic information systems, cartographic and photogrammetric technologists and technicians, who gather, analyze, interpret and use geospatial information for applications in natural resources, geology, environmental research and land use planning. Meteorological technologists and technicians observe weather and atmospheric conditions, record, interpret, transmit and report on meteorological data, and provide weather information to the agricultural, natural resources and transportation industries and the public. Geomatics technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of government, utilities, mapping, computer software, forestry, architectural, engineering and consulting firms and other related establishments. Meteorological technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of government, the media, natural resources, utilities and transportation companies and consulting firms.

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226 Other technical inspectors and regulatory officers
2261Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians

Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians operate radiographic, ultrasonic, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current and similar testing equipment to detect discontinuities in objects of various compositions and materials. They are employed by quality control, maintenance and safety departments of manufacturing, processing, transportation, energy and other companies and by private industrial inspection establishments.

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2262Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers

Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers inspect transportation vehicles such as aircraft, watercraft, automobiles and trucks and weighing and measuring devices such as scales and meters as well as industrial instruments, processes and equipment for conformity to government and industry standards and regulations. They are employed by government agencies and in the private sector.

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2263Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety

Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety evaluate and monitor health and safety hazards and develop strategies to control risks. They inspect restaurants, industrial establishments, municipal water systems, public facilities, institutions and other workplaces to ensure compliance with government regulations regarding sanitation, pollution control, the handling and storage of hazardous substances and workplace safety. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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2264Construction inspectors

Construction inspectors inspect the construction and maintenance of new and existing buildings, bridges, highways and industrial construction to ensure that specifications and building codes are observed and monitor work site safety. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, construction companies, architectural and civil engineering consulting firms or they may be self-employed.

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227 Transportation officers and controllers
2271Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors

Air pilots fly fixed wing aircraft and helicopters to provide air transportation and other services such as crop spraying and aerial surveying. Flight engineers assist air pilots with monitoring, troubleshooting and maintenance of aircraft systems and with pre- and post-flight inspections. Flying instructors teach flying techniques and procedures to student and licensed pilots. Air pilots, flight engineers and flight instructors are employed by airline and air freight companies, flying schools and by other public and private sector aircraft operators.

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2272Air traffic controllers and related occupations

Air traffic controllers direct air traffic within assigned airspace, and control moving aircraft and service vehicles at airports. Flight service specialists provide pilots with flight information essential to aviation safety. Flight dispatchers authorize airline flights over assigned routes. Air traffic controllers and flight service specialists are employed by NAV Canada and the Canadian Forces. Flight dispatchers are employed by airline and air services companies and by the Canadian Forces.

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2273Deck officers, water transport

Deck officers, water transport, operate and command ships or self-propelled vessels to transport passengers and cargo on oceans and coastal and inland waters, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of deck crews. This unit group also includes Canadian Coast Guard deck officers. They are employed by marine transportation companies and federal government departments.

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2274Engineer officers, water transport

Engineer officers, water transport, operate and maintain main engines, machinery and auxiliary equipment aboard ships and other self-propelled vessels, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of engine room crews. They are employed by marine transportation companies and federal government departments.

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2275Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators

Railway traffic controllers co-ordinate passenger and freight train traffic on railways. They are employed by rail transport companies. Marine traffic regulators monitor and regulate coastal and inland marine traffic within assigned waterways. They are employed by port, harbour, canal and lock authorities and by the Canadian Coast Guard.

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228 Technical occupations in computer and information systems
2281Computer network technicians

Computer network technicians establish, operate, maintain and co-ordinate the use of local and wide area networks (LANs and WANs), mainframe networks, hardware, software and related computer equipment. They set up and maintain Internet and intranet Web sites and Web-server hardware and software, and monitor and optimize network connectivity and performance. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors. Supervisors of computer network technicians are included in this unit group.

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2282User support technicians

User support technicians provide first-line technical support to computer users experiencing difficulties with computer hardware and with computer applications and communications software. They are employed by computer hardware manufacturers and retailers, software developers, in call centres and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors. They are also employed by independent technical support companies or they may be self-employed.

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2283Information systems testing technicians

Information systems testing technicians execute test plans to evaluate the performance of software applications and information and telecommunications systems. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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3 Health occupations

30 Professional occupations in nursing

301 Professional occupations in nursing
3011Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors

Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors co-ordinate and supervise the activities of registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel in the provision of patient care. They are employed in health care institutions such as hospitals, clinics and nursing homes, and in nursing agencies.

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3012Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses

Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses provide direct nursing care to patients, deliver health education programs and provide consultative services regarding issues relevant to the practice of nursing. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, community agencies, companies, private homes and public and private organizations or they may be self-employed.

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31 Professional occupations in health (except nursing)

311 Physicians, dentists and veterinarians
3111Specialist physicians

Specialists in clinical medicine diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders and act as consultants to other physicians. Specialists in laboratory medicine study the nature, cause and development of diseases in humans. Specialists in surgery perform and supervise surgical procedures. Specialists in clinical medicine usually work in private practice or in a hospital while those in laboratory medicine and in surgery usually work in hospitals. Residents in training to become specialist physicians are included in this unit group.

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3112General practitioners and family physicians

General practitioners and family physicians diagnose and treat the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of patients. They provide primary contact and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Residents in training to be general practitioners or family physicians are included in this unit group.

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3113Dentists

Dentists diagnose, treat, prevent and control disorders of the teeth and mouth. They work in private practice or may be employed in hospitals, clinics, public health facilities or universities.