Work Context

Physical, environmental, and social factors that influence the nature of work.

Structural Job Characteristics

The components which define the structural aspect of the job.

DescriptorDefinition
Automation[xxviii] The degree to which the job is automated.
Competition[xxix] The extent to which this job requires the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures.
Consequence of Error The impact on outcomes of a mistake which was not readily correctable, made by the worker.
Freedom to Make Decisions The extent to which the job allows the worker to make decision without supervision.
Frequency of Decision Making The extent to which the job requires the worker to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization.
Impact of Decisions[xxx] The impact of the decisions made by the worker on the organization or colleagues.
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment The importance for the worker to keep pace with the speed of the equipment or machines. This does not refer to being occupied at all times in the position.
Precision[xxxi] The importance of being exact or accurate in performing the job.
Structured versus Unstructured Work The extent to which the job is structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals.
Tasks Repetition[xxxii] The extent to which the same tasks are repeated in the performance of the work.
Time Pressure The extent to which this job requires the worker to meet strict deadlines.
Type of Work Schedules[xxxiii] The type of schedule usually required for the job.
Work Week Duration[xxxiv] Number of hours typically worked over a period of 7 days.

Physical Work Environment

The physical surroundings in which the worker performs their job.

DescriptorDefinition
Biological Agents The worker is exposed to bacteria and viruses as a result of indirect contact with, or direct handling of, infectious materials or micro-organisms that may cause illness.
Dangerous Chemical Substances The worker is exposed to contaminants, such as pollutants, gases, dust, or odours through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with skin.
Dangerous Locations The job requires working in locations that are inherently treacherous and are potential sources of injury. Such work locations include construction sites, underground sites, erected support structures, and marine environments.
Electricity The worker is exposed to electrical circuitry, high tension wires, transformers, or other equipment that may be a potential source of electrical shock.
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting The job requires working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions.
Extreme Temperatures[xxxv] The worker is exposed to very hot (above 90 °F) or very cold (below 32 °F) temperatures.
Falling The worker is exposed to risks of slipping, tripping, tumbling, or falling resulting from unexpected change in the contact between the feet and the ground or walking surface.
Fire, Steam, Hot Surfaces The worker is exposed to fire (rather than exposure to flammable substances that may ignite), to emissions of steam, or to intensely hot surfaces that are potential sources of injury.
Flying Particles, Falling Objects The worker is exposed to flying particles and falling objects or materials in the work environment that pose the risk of bodily injury. Flying particles refer to particles such as wood chips, metal particles, and rock chips generated by the handling, crushing, grinding, rapid impact, or explosion of materials.
Hazardous Conditions The worker is exposed to conditions that involve risks of accident or personal injury.
Hazardous Equipment, Machinery, Tools The job requires working near or with equipment, instruments, machinery, or power/hand tools that may be a potential source of accident or injury.
High Places The job requires working in elevated places.
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment The job requires working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car, truck or heavy equipment).
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment The job requires working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor).
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled The job requires working inside a building with controlled temperature and humidity conditions.
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled The job requires working inside a building where the temperature and humidity are not controlled (e.g., warehouse without heat).
Limited Hearing The job requires working in conditions where hearing is limited to short and/or infrequent verbal interactions.
Mold The worker is exposed to the presence of fungi that causes a chemical modification of the environment on which it grows.
Non-Toxic Dusts The worker is exposed to non-poisonous airborne particles such as textile dust, flour, sand, sawdust, and feathers in the environment.
Odours The worker is exposed to noxious, intense, or prolonged odours.
Outside, Exposed to Weather[xxxvi] The job requires working outdoors and being subject to variations in weather conditions and seasonal weather patterns.
Outside, Under Cover[xxxvii] The job requires working outdoors, protected from variations in weather conditions and seasonal weather patterns by a covered space (e.g., structure with roof but no walls).
Physical Proximity The job requires performing tasks while being physically close to other people.
Radiation The worker is exposed to ionizing radiation such as X-rays and radioactive substances or non-ionizing radiation such as radio frequencies and infrared, ultraviolet, or visible light that may adversely affect health.
Skin Injury The worker is exposed to the risks of minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings.
Sound and Noise[xxxviii] The worker is exposed to sound and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable.
Specialized Safety Equipment[xxxix] The job requires wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection.
Standard Safety Equipment[xl] The job requires wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats, or life jackets.
Vibration The worker is exposed to an oscillating or quivering motion of the body while performing tasks (e.g., while operating a jackhammer).

Physical Demands

The physical activities the job requires the worker to do.

DescriptorDefinition
Bending or Twisting the Body The job requires leaning forwards or backwards or moving the body torsionally.
Carrying The job requires holding things while moving.
Climbing The job requires going up and down ladders, scaffolds, or poles.
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions The job requires working in confined space that requires getting into uncomfortable positions.
Crawling The job requires moving in a prone position, with the body resting on or close to the ground, on the hands and knees.
Crouching The job requires powering the body stance by bending the legs.
Handling Material Manually[xli] The job requires using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools, or controls.
Keeping or Regaining Balance The job requires maintaining your body in a steady position or recovering balance.
Keyboarding The job requires using a panel of keys for typing on an electronic device or computer.
Kneeling The job requires positioning the body so that one or both knees rest on the floor.
Lifting The job requires raising an object using the hands and arms.
Making Repetitive Motions The job requires repeating the same movement.
Pulling The job requires taking hold of an object to move it toward oneself.
Pushing The job requires exerting force in order to move an object forward.
Reaching The job requires extending an arm in order to grasp or touch an object.
Sitting The job requires being in a position in which one's weight is supported by one's buttocks rather than one's feet.
Speaking The job requires conveying information or expressing one’s thought in spoken language.
Standing The job requires maintaining an upright position supported by one’s feet.
Stooping The job requires standing or walking with an inclination of the head, body, or shoulders.
Visual Acuity The job requires distinguishing fine details in things or in the environment.
Walking and Running The job requires lifting and setting down each foot in turn in order to move forward at a certain pace.

Interpersonal Relations [xlii]

The human interactions required to perform the job.

DescriptorDefinition
Conflict Situations[xliii] The worker is exposed to the possibility of facing conflict situations.
Contact With Others The job requires to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform tasks.
Coordinating or Leading Others The job requires organizing and guiding others in accomplishing work activities.
Deal With External Customers The job requires working with members outside of the organization, including clients and members of the public.
Deal With Physically Aggressive People The job requires dealing with individuals that have violent behaviour.
Dealing With Unpleasant or Angry People The job requires dealing with disagreeable, furious, or discourteous individuals.
Electronic Mail The job requires using an electronic written communication software to send messages.
Face-to-Face Discussions The job requires having in-person discussions with individuals or teams.
Letters and Memos The job requires producing administrative written communications.
Public Speaking The job requires delivering speeches to an audience.
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results The job requires assuming the responsibility for the end product and effects of other workers’ work.
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety The job requires ensuring the health and security of others.
Telephone The job requires having telephone conversations.
Videoconference The job requires having videoconference meetings and conversation.
Work With Work Group or Team The job requires working with others in a group or team.

Work Values

Global aspects of work that are important to a person's satisfaction.
Note: This section is under review.

DescriptorDefinition
Achievement Occupations that satisfy this work value are results-oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are ability utilization and achievement.
Independence Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are creativity, responsibility, and autonomy.
Recognition Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are advancement, authority, recognition, and social status.
Relationships Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are co-workers, moral values, and social service.
Support Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are company policies, supervision of human relations, and technical supervision.
Working Conditions Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are activity, compensation, independence, security, variety, and working conditions.
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