Occupational structure used in the Occupational and Skills Information System (OaSIS)

The National Occupational Classification (NOC) is the national reference for occupations in Canada. It provides a systematic classification structure that categorizes the entire range of occupational activity in Canada and can be used for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating occupational data for labour market information and employment-related program administration. Occupational information is of critical importance for the provision of labour market and career intelligence, skills development, occupational forecasting, labour supply and demand analysis, employment equity, and numerous other programs and services.

The NOC is built through the application of two major attributes of jobs as classification criteria: broad occupational categories and Training, Education, Experience and Responsibilities categories (TEERs). There are ten broad occupational categories and six TEER categories.

  • The ten broad occupational categories are defined by the type of work performed based on the industry of employment and field of study required for entry level into an occupation. Within the broad occupational categories, factors such as the materials processed or used, industrial processes and equipment used, as well as the products made and services provided have also been considered when combining jobs into occupations and occupations into groups.
  • The six TEER categories correspond to the Training, Education, Experience, and Responsibilities required for occupations. A TEER category is defined by the amount and type of training and education required to enter and perform the duties of an occupation. It also takes into consideration the experience required and the complexity of responsibilities involved in the work. Each TEER category reflects commonly accepted paths to employment in an occupation.

Each NOC unit group description consists of several standardized sections which define and describe its content (lead statement, job titles, main duties, employment requirements, additional information and exclusions). To find out more, please consult the About the NOC page.

The OaSIS further expands the NOC 2021 5-digit hierarchical structure by disaggregating the 516 NOC unit groups into 902 7-digit occupational profiles. The hierarchy and structure presented below allows users to drill down from one of the broad occupational categories to an OaSIS occupational profile.

Structure breakdown – OaSIS 2022 Version 1.0

0Legislative and senior management occupations
00Legislative and senior managers
000Legislative and senior managers
0001Legislators and senior management
00010Legislators

Legislators participate in the activities of a federal, provincial, territorial or local government legislative body or executive council, band council or school board as elected or appointed members.

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00011Senior government managers and officials

Senior government managers and officials plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the major activities of municipal or regional governments or of provincial, territorial or federal departments, boards, agencies or commissions. They establish the direction to be taken by these organizations in accordance with legislation and policies made by elected representatives or legislative bodies.

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00012Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services

Senior managers in financial, communications and other business services are usually appointed by a board of directors, to which they report. They work either alone or in conjunction with the board of directors to develop and establish objectives for the company, and to develop or approve policies and programs. They plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the operations of their organization in relation to established objectives. They work in establishments throughout the telecommunications, finance, insurance, real estate, and data processing, hosting and related services industries as well as other business service industries or they may own and operate their own business.

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00013Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations

Senior managers in health, education, social and community services and membership organizations plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, membership and other organizations or institutions that deliver health, education, social or community services. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these organizations, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They are employed in health care organizations, educational services, social and community services and membership organizations or they may own and operate their own business.

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00014Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services

Senior managers in trade, broadcasting and other customer services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, trade, broadcasting and other service industry companies. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They work in establishments in broadcasting and related media services, wholesale trade, retail trade, accommodation and food service, and other services or they may own and operate their own business.

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00015Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities

Senior managers in construction, transportation, production and utilities plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the overall operations of goods production, utility, transportation and construction companies. They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with other members of a board of directors. They work in establishments throughout the following industries: fishing, forestry, logging and agriculture; mining, oil and gas extraction; construction; transportation and warehousing; printing; manufacturing; and utilities or they may own and operate their own business.

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1Business, finance and administration occupations
10Specialized middle management occupations in administrative services, financial and business services and communication (except broadcasting)
100Specialized middle management occupations in administrative services, financial and business services and communication (except broadcasting)
1001Administrative services managers
10010Financial managers

Financial managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of financial and accounting departments. They develop and implement the financial policies and systems of establishments. Financial managers establish performance standards and prepare various financial reports for senior management. They are employed in financial and accounting departments in companies throughout the private sector and in government.

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10011Human resources managers

Human resources managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources and personnel departments, and develop and implement policies, programs and procedures regarding human resource planning, recruitment, collective bargaining, training and development, occupation classification and pay and benefit administration. They represent management and participate actively on various joint committees to maintain ongoing relations between management and employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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10012Purchasing managers

Purchasing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a purchasing department and develop and implement the purchasing policies of a business or institution. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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10019Other administrative services managers

Other administrative services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate departments responsible for corporate governance and regulatory compliance, records management, security services, admissions and other administrative services. Also included in this unit group are managers responsible for departments involved in two or more of the following activities: finance, human resources, purchasing or administrative services. They are employed throughout the public and private sector.

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1002Managers in financial and business services
10020Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers

Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of departments or establishments that provide insurance, mortgage, real estate and investment services. They are generally responsible for business development and must ensure that their group reaches performance levels related to established objectives. They are employed by insurance companies, real estate firms, stockbrokers, investment dealers, mortgage brokers and security and commodity exchanges.

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10021Banking, credit and other investment managers

Banking, credit and other investment managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of financial establishments or operational departments within such establishments, or credit departments in industrial and commercial establishments. They oversee business development and manage overall performance in accordance with established strategic directions and policies. Banking managers are employed by banks, trust companies and credit unions. Credit managers are employed by credit departments in department stores, utility companies, car dealerships, insurance companies or other industrial or commercial organizations. Other investment managers are employed by credit card companies, consumer loan companies, mutual fund investment firms, mortgage investment companies or other financial establishments concerned with extending loans and financing and investments.

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10022Advertising, marketing and public relations managers

Advertising, marketing, public relations and e-business managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial and e-business advertising, marketing and public relations. They are employed by commercial and industrial establishments, government departments, and advertising, marketing and public relations firms or consulting businesses.

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10029Other business services managers

Other business services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that provide services to business, and ensure the quality of those services and client satisfaction. They work in fields such as management consulting, market research, personnel and payroll services, contact centre services and security services.

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1003Managers in communication (except broadcasting)
10030Telecommunication carriers managers

Telecommunication carriers managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a telecommunications establishment, department or facility. They are employed by wired, wireless, satellite and other telecommunications carriers.

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11Professional occupations in finance and business
111Professional occupations in finance
1110Auditors, accountants and investment professionals
11100Financial auditors and accountants

Financial auditors examine and analyze the accounting and financial records of individuals and establishments to ensure accuracy and compliance with established accounting standards and procedures. Accountants plan, organize and administer accounting systems for individuals and establishments. They are employed by private sector accounting and auditing firms or departments and public sector accounting and auditing departments or units, or they may be self-employed. Articling students in accounting firms are included in this unit group.

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11101Financial and investment analysts

Financial and investment analysts collect and analyze financial information such as economic forecasts, trading volumes and the movement of capital, financial backgrounds of companies, historical performances and future trends of stocks, bonds and other investment instruments to provide financial and investment or financing advice for their company or their company's clients. Their studies and evaluations cover areas such as takeover bids, private placements, mergers or acquisitions. Financial analysts are employed by a wide range of establishments throughout the private and public sector, such as banks, brokerage houses, insurance companies, investment companies, manufacturing firms, trust companies, utility companies and underwriting firms. Investment analysts are employed primarily by brokerage houses and fund management companies.

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11102Financial advisors

Financial advisors counsel individuals on financial decisions such as investments, cash management, and estate planning. They establish personal financial plans according to clients’ objectives and guide them through the implementation of the proposed strategies that may be adjusted as the situation evolve. They are employed by banks, trust companies and investment firms, or they may be self-employed.

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11103Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers

Securities agents and investment dealers buy and sell stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other securities for individual investors, pension fund managers, banks, trust companies, insurance firms and other establishments. Brokers buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at stock exchanges on behalf of investment dealers. They are employed by investment companies, stock brokerage firms, stock and commodity exchanges and other establishments in the securities industry.

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11109Other financial officers

Other financial officers include professional occupations in finance such as financial examiners and inspectors, financial investigators, financial underwriters, mortgage brokers and trust officers. They are employed by banks, trust companies, investment firms and governments, or they may be self-employed.

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112Professional occupations in business
1120Human resources and business service professionals
11200Human resources professionals

Human resources professionals develop, implement and evaluate human resources and labour relations policies, programs and procedures and advise employers and employees on human resources matters. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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11201Professional occupations in business management consulting

Professionals in business management consulting occupations provide services to management such as analyzing the structure, operations, managerial methods or functions of an organization in order to propose, plan and implement improvements. They are employed by management consulting firms and throughout the public and private sectors or are self-employed.

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11202Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations

Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations analyse, develop and implement communication and promotion strategies and information programs, analyse advertising needs and develop appropriate advertising and marketing plans, publicize activities and events, and maintain media relations on behalf of businesses, governments and other organizations, and for performers, athletes, writers and other talented individuals. They are employed by marketing and consulting firms, advertising agencies, corporations, associations, government, social agencies, museums, galleries, public interest groups, and cultural and other organizations, or they may be self-employed. Agents such as entertainment, literary and sports agents are included in this unit group.

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12Administrative and financial supervisors and specialized administrative occupations
120Administrative and financial supervisors
1201Administrative and financial supervisors
12010Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers

Supervisors of general office and administrative support workers supervise and coordinate the activities of workers in the following minor groups: Office support and court services occupations (14.10) and Survey, statistical and data entry occupations (14.11). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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12011Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers

Supervisors of finance and insurance office workers supervise and coordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Payroll administrators (13.102), Accounting and related clerks (14.200), Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (14.201) and Collection clerks (14.202). They are employed by banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, and by other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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12012Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers

Supervisors of library, correspondence and related information workers supervise and coordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Survey interviewers and statistical clerks (14.110), Library assistants and clerks (14.300), and Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks (14.301). They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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12013Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling coordination occupations

Supervisors of supply chain, tracking and scheduling coordination occupations supervise the activities of workers in unit group 13.201 Production and transportation logistics coordinators and in sub-major group 14.4: Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling coordination occupations. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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121Specialized administrative occupations
1210Administrative and regulatory occupations
12100Executive assistants

Executive assistants coordinate administrative procedures, public relations activities and research and analysis functions for members of legislative assemblies, ministers, deputy ministers, corporate officials and executives, committees and boards of directors. They are employed by governments, corporations and associations.

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12101Human resources and recruitment officers

Human resources and recruitment officers identify and advertise job vacancies, recruit candidates, and assist in the selection and reassignment of employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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12102Procurement and purchasing agents and officers

Procurement and purchasing agents and officers source and purchase general and specialized equipment, materials, business services and land or access rights for use or for further processing by their establishment. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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12103Conference and event planners

Conference and event planners plan, organize and coordinate conferences, conventions, meetings, seminars, exhibitions, trade shows, festivals and other events. They are employed by tourism associations, trade and professional associations, convention and conference centres, governments and by conference and event planning companies, or they may be self-employed.

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12104Employment insurance and revenue officers

Employment insurance and revenue officers administer and enforce laws and regulations related to tax revenue, employment insurance and other government benefit services. They are employed by government agencies.

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1211Court reporters, transcriptionists, records management technicians and statistical officers
12110Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations

Court reporters record and transcribe verbatim the proceedings of courts, legislative assemblies and committees, and prepare transcripts for use by judges, tribunals and quasi-judicial panels. They are employed by courts of law, provincial and federal legislative assemblies and committees, or they may be self-employed. Medical transcriptionists record, transcribe and edit dictation by physicians and other health care providers, surgical proceedings, health-related reports and other medical documentation. They are employed by hospitals, medical clinics and doctors' offices, or they may be self-employed. Closed captioners, braille technicians and other transcriptionists are included in this unit group.

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12111Health information management occupations

Health information management workers collect, code, record, review and manage health information. They are employed by hospitals, clinics, workplace health and safety boards, health record consulting firms and other health care establishments. Health information management occupations who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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12112Records management technicians

Records management technicians operate and maintain systems for the collection, classification, retrieval and retention of records, images, documents and information. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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12113Statistical officers and related research support occupations

Statistical officers and workers in related research support occupations provide statistical and research support services to a wide range of businesses and organizations. These workers conduct statistical routines, monitor trends, compile data and prepare charts, graphs, summaries and reports in support of organizational information needs and research activities. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors. Statistical officers who are also supervisors are included in this unit group.

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122Accounting, insurance and related business administrative occupations
1220Accounting, insurance and related business administrative occupations
12200Accounting technicians and bookkeepers

Accounting technicians and bookkeepers maintain complete sets of books, keep records of accounts, verify the procedures used for recording financial transactions, and provide personal bookkeeping services. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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12201Insurance adjusters and claims examiners

Insurance adjusters investigate insurance claims and determine the amount of loss or damages covered by insurance policies. They are employed in claims departments of insurance companies or as independent adjusters. Insurance claims examiners examine claims investigated by insurance adjusters and authorize payments. They are employed at head offices or branches of insurance companies.

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12202Insurance underwriters

Insurance underwriters review and evaluate insurance applications to determine insurance risks, insurance premiums and extent of insurance coverage according to company policies. They are employed at head and branch offices of insurance companies.

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12203Assessors, business valuators and appraisers

Assessors and appraisers determine the value of land, businesses, estates and other real property, for purposes of sale, purchase, taxation or disposal of assets. Appraisers also determine the value of personal and household items. Business valuators quantify the value of a business, its securities or its intangible assets. Assessors, business valuators and appraisers are employed by government agencies, real estate firms and other private companies, or they may be self-employed.

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13Administrative occupations and transportation logistics occupations
131Administrative occupations
1310Administrative, property and payroll officers
13100Administrative officers

Administrative officers oversee and implement administrative procedures, establish work priorities, conduct analyses of administrative operations and coordinate acquisition of administrative services such as office space, supplies and security services. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors. Administrative officers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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13101Property administrators

Property administrators perform administrative duties and coordinate activities related to the management and rental of investment property and real estate on behalf of property and strata property owners. They are employed by property, real estate and strata services management companies, property development companies and by government.

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13102Payroll administrators

Payroll administrators collect, verify and process payroll information, determine pay and benefit entitlements for employees, maintain accurate payroll records, and provide payroll information within a department, company or other establishment. They are employed by payroll administration companies and by establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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1311Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical
13110Administrative assistants

Administrative assistants perform a variety of administrative duties in support of managerial and professional employers. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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13111Legal administrative assistants

Legal administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in law offices, legal departments of large firms, real estate companies, land title offices, municipal, provincial and federal courts and government.

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13112Medical administrative assistants

Medical administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in doctor's offices, hospitals, medical clinics and other medical settings.

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132Transportation and production logistics coordinators and customs and related broker occupations
1320Transportation and production logistics coordinators and customs and related broker occupations
13200Customs, ship and other brokers

Customs brokers clear goods through customs and to their destination on behalf of importer and exporter clients. Shipbrokers buy and sell cargo space on ships and buy and sell ships, yachts and other watercraft on behalf of clients. This unit group also includes other brokers who negotiate commercial transactions, logistics or other services between parties on behalf of clients. They are employed by customs, ship or other brokerage establishments or may be self-employed.

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13201Production and transportation logistics coordinators

Production logistics coordinators coordinate and expedite the flow of work within an establishment, prepare work and production schedules and monitor the progress of production and construction projects. Transportation logistics coordinators coordinate and monitor the movement of products and ensure that products are shipped and received on schedule. They are employed by manufacturing and construction companies and other industrial establishments.

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14Administrative and financial support and supply chain logistics occupations
141Office, court, and data support occupations
1410Office support and court services occupations
14100General office support workers

General office support workers prepare correspondence, reports, statements and other material, operate office equipment, answer telephones, verify, record and process forms and documents such as contracts and requisitions and perform general clerical duties according to established procedures. They are employed in offices throughout the public and private sectors.

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14101Receptionists

Receptionists greet people arriving at offices, hospitals and other establishments, direct visitors to appropriate person or service, answer and forward telephone calls, take messages, schedule appointments and perform other clerical duties. They are employed by hospitals, medical and dental offices and other offices throughout the public and private sectors. Telephone operators are included in this group.

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14102Personnel clerks

Personnel clerks assist personnel officers and human resources specialists and compile, maintain and process information relating to staffing, recruitment, training, labour relations, performance evaluations and classifications. They are employed in personnel departments throughout the private and public sectors.

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14103Court clerks and related court services occupations

Court clerks and workers in related court services occupations perform administrative, security, and other support functions for courts of law such as scheduling trials, processing service fees, calling court to order, preparing court dockets and maintaining exhibits, recording trial proceedings and maintaining court records. They also facilitate court security and public safety, liaise with law enforcement organizations, and provide support to the judiciary. They are employed by federal, provincial, territorial and municipal courts and by police forces.

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1411Survey, statistical and data entry occupations
14110Survey interviewers and statistical clerks

Survey interviewers contact individuals to gather information for market research, public opinion polls or election and census enumeration. Statistical clerks code and compile interview and other data into reports, lists, directories and other documents. They are employed by market research and polling firms, government departments and agencies, utility companies, contact centres and other establishments. This unit group also includes clerks who observe and record information on traffic flow.

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14111Data entry clerks

Data entry clerks input coded, statistical, financial and other information into computerized databases, spreadsheets or other templates using a keyboard, mouse, or optical scanner, speech recognition software or other data entry tools. They are employed in the private and public sectors.

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14112Desktop publishing operators and related occupations

Desktop publishing operators and workers in related occupations use computers to enter copy into a typesetting system or operate typesetting output equipment to produce text that is ready to print. They are employed by firms that specialize in typesetting, commercial printing companies, publishing and printing companies and various establishments in the public and private sectors that have in-house printing departments.

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142Financial, insurance and related administrative support workers
1420Financial, insurance and related administrative support workers
14200Accounting and related clerks

Accounting and related clerks calculate, prepare and process bills, invoices, accounts payable and receivable, budgets and other financial records according to established procedures. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.

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14201Banking, insurance and other financial clerks

Banking, insurance and other financial clerks compile, process and maintain banking, insurance and other financial information. They are employed by banks, credit companies, private and public insurance establishments, investment firms and other financial establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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14202Collection clerks

Collection clerks collect payments on overdue accounts and bad cheques and locate debtors to make collection arrangements. They are employed by collection agencies, utility companies, department stores, loan companies, banks and credit unions, and by financial and licensing departments within governments.

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143Library, correspondence and other clerks
1430Library, correspondence and other clerks
14300Library assistants and clerks

Library assistants and clerks issue and receive library materials, sort and shelve books and provide general library information to users. They also perform clerical functions. Library clerks are employed by libraries or other establishments with library services.

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14301Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks

Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks write correspondence, proofread material for accuracy, compile material for publication, verify, record and process forms and documents, such as applications, licences, permits, contracts, registrations and requisitions, and perform other related clerical duties in accordance with established procedures, guidelines and schedules. They are employed by newspapers, periodicals, publishing firms and by establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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144Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling coordination occupations
1440Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling coordination occupations
14400Shippers and receivers

Shippers and receivers ship, receive and record the movement of parts, supplies, materials, equipment and stock to and from an establishment. They are employed in the public sector and by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.

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14401Storekeepers and partspersons

Storekeepers and partspersons sort, store and issue parts and supplies for use by the establishment in which they work and for sale to the public. They are employed by manufacturing companies, warehouses, retail and wholesale establishments, mining, forestry and construction companies, repair shops, hospitals and other establishments. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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14402Production logistics workers

Production logistics workers expedite the flow of work and materials within an establishment and prepare merchandise ready for shipment. They are employed by manufacturing and construction companies, printing and publishing companies and other industrial establishments.

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14403Purchasing and inventory control workers

Purchasing and inventory control workers process purchasing transactions and maintain inventories of materials, equipment and stock. They are employed by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies, government agencies and other establishments.

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14404Dispatchers

Dispatchers operate radios and other telecommunication equipment to dispatch emergency vehicles and to coordinate the activities of drivers and other personnel. They are employed by police, fire and health departments, other emergency service agencies, taxi, delivery and courier services, trucking and utilities companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.

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14405Transportation route and crew schedulers

Transportation route and crew schedulers prepare operational and crew schedules for transportation equipment and operating personnel. They are employed by municipal transit commissions, truck, delivery and courier companies, railways, airlines and by other transportation establishments in both the private and public sectors.

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2Natural and applied sciences and related occupations
20Specialized middle management occupations in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
200Specialized middle management occupations in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
2001Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
20010Engineering managers

Engineering managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an engineering department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments and by consulting engineering and scientific research companies.

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20011Architecture and science managers

Architecture and science managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an architecture, landscape architecture, scientific or statistical department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments as well as by architectural firms and scientific research companies.

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20012Computer and information systems managers

Computer and information systems managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of organizations that analyze, design, develop, implement, operate and administer computer and telecommunications software, networks and information systems. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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21Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences
211Professional occupations in natural sciences
2110Physical science professionals
21100Physicists and astronomers

Physicists conduct theoretical and applied research to extend knowledge of natural phenomena and to develop new processes and devices in fields such as electronics, communications, power generation and distribution, aerodynamics, optics and lasers, remote sensing, biotechnology, medicine and health. They are employed by electronic, electrical and aerospace manufacturing companies, telecommunications companies, power utilities, university and government research laboratories, hospitals and by a wide range of other processing, manufacturing, and research and consulting firms. Astronomers conduct observational and theoretical research to extend knowledge of the universe. They are employed by government and universities.

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21101Chemists

Chemists conduct research and analysis in support of industrial operations, product and process development, quality control, environmental control, medical diagnosis and treatment, biotechnology, nanotechnology and other applications. They also conduct theoretical, experimental and applied research into basic chemical and biochemical processes to create or synthesize new products and processes. They are employed in research, development and quality control laboratories; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries; mineral, metal and pulp and paper industries; and a wide variety of manufacturing, utility, health, educational and government establishments.

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21102Geoscientists and oceanographers

Geoscientists include geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who conduct programs of exploration and research to extend knowledge of the structure, composition and processes of the earth, to locate, identify and extract hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater resources and to assess and mitigate the effects of development and waste disposal projects on the environment. Oceanographers conduct programs of exploration and research on ocean processes and phenomena, biological, chemical and physical characteristics of oceans, interactions with atmospheric and geological environments and impacts of human activity on oceans and marine ecosystems. Geoscientists are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology, geophysics and engineering firms and by governments and educational institutions, or they may be self-employed. Oceanographers are employed by governments, educational institutions and private companies engaged in exploration of seafloor deposits and seafarming areas, or they may be self-employed.

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21103Meteorologists and climatologists

Meteorologists and climatologists analyze and forecast weather, provide consultation on atmospheric phenomena and conduct research into the processes and phenomena of weather, climate and atmosphere. They are employed by all levels of government, natural resources and utility companies, the media and private consulting firms, or they may be self-employed.

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21109Other professional occupations in physical sciences

Professionals in other physical sciences occupations conduct theoretical and applied research in fields of physical science. Metallurgists, soil scientists and physical scientists and researchers are included in this unit group. They are employed by governments, educational institutions and a wide range of industrial establishments.

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2111Life science professionals
21110Biologists and related scientists

Biologists and related scientists conduct basic and applied research to extend knowledge of living organisms, to manage natural resources, and to develop new practices and products related to medicine and agriculture. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, environmental consulting companies, resource and utilities companies, chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnical companies, hospitals and health, research and educational institutions.

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21111Forestry professionals

Forestry professionals conduct research, develop plans and administer and direct programs related to the management and harvesting of forest resources. They are employed by the forest industry, provincial and federal governments, consulting companies, educational institutions and other industries, or they may be self-employed.

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21112Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists

Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists provide assistance and advice to farmers on all aspects of farm management, cultivation, fertilization, harvesting, soil erosion and composition, disease prevention, nutrition, crop rotation and marketing. They are employed by businesses, institutions and governments that assist the farming community, or they may be self-employed.

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2112Public and environmental health and safety professionals
21120Public and environmental health and safety professionals

Public and environmental health and safety professionals review, evaluate and monitor public health and environmental safety hazards and develop strategies to prevent, control and eliminate disease and environmental impact caused by biological and chemical factors. They inspect restaurants, industrial establishments, municipal water systems, public facilities, and institutions to ensure compliance with government regulations regarding sanitation, pollution control and the handling and storage of hazardous substances. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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212Professional occupations in applied sciences (except engineering)
2120Architects, urban planners and land surveyors
21200Architects

Architects conceptualize, plan and develop designs for the construction and renovation of commercial, institutional and residential buildings. They are employed by architectural firms, private corporations and governments, or they may be self-employed.

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21201Landscape architects

Landscape architects conceptualize, design, plan and manage the construction of natural, cultural and built landscape development for commercial projects, office complexes, parks, golf courses and residential development. They are employed by government environmental and development agencies, landscape consulting firms and by architectural and engineering firms, or they are self-employed.

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21202Urban and land use planners

Urban and land use planners develop plans and recommend policies for managing land use, physical facilities and associated services for urban and rural areas and remote regions. They are employed by all levels of government, land developers, engineering and other consulting companies, or may work as private consultants.

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21203Land surveyors

Land surveyors plan, direct and conduct legal surveys to establish the location of real property boundaries, contours and other natural or human-made features, and prepare and maintain cross-sectional drawings, official plans, records and documents pertaining to these surveys. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, private sector land surveying establishments, real estate development, natural resource, engineering and construction firms, or they may be self-employed.

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2121Mathematicians, statisticians, actuaries and data scientists
21210Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries

Mathematicians and statisticians research mathematical or statistical theories, and develop and apply mathematical or statistical techniques for solving problems in such fields as science, engineering, business and social science. Actuaries apply mathematics, statistics, probability and risk theory to assess potential financial impacts of future events. Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries are employed by universities, governments, bank and trust companies, insurance companies, pension benefit consulting firms, professional associations, and science and engineering consulting firms.

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21211Data scientists

Data scientists use advanced analytics technologies, including machine learning and predictive modelling, to support the identification of trends, scrape information from unstructured data sources and provide automated recommendations. They are employed by consulting firms, universities, banks and information technology departments in the private and public sectors.

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2122Computer and information systems professionals
21220Cybersecurity specialists

Cybersecurity specialists develop, plan, recommend, implement, improve and monitor security measures to protect an organization's computer networks, connected devices and information to prevent unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of the information or of the systems on which the information resides. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors.

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21221Business systems specialists

Business systems specialists perform detailed system tests, produce reports and develop new system architectures. They must also identify the strategic objectives of a company and translate these objectives into achievable tasks for an organization's information technology department. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors.

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21222Information systems specialists

Information systems specialists analyze, test and assess systems requirements, develop and implement information systems development plans, policies and procedures, and provide advice on a wide range of information systems issues. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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21223Database analysts and data administrators

Database analysts design, develop and administer data management solutions. Data administrators develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2123Computer, software and Web designers and developers
21230Computer systems developers and programmers

Computer systems developers and programmers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for software applications, data processing applications, operating systems-level software and communications software. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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21231Software engineers and designers

Software engineers and designers research, design, evaluate, integrate and maintain software applications, technical environments, operating systems, embedded software, information warehouses and telecommunications software. They are employed in information technology consulting firms, information technology research and development firms, and information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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21232Software developers and programmers

Software developers and programmers design, write, and test code for new systems and software to ensure efficiency. They create the foundations for operative systems and run diagnostic programs to certify effectiveness. They are employed in computer software, computer and video game development firms, information technology consulting firms, and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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21233Web designers

Web designers develop and create the visual presentation, layout and functionality of the Web sites and related applications. They are responsible for ensuring that the Web site is easy to use, and that the information is easy to access. Web designers are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, advertising agencies or they may be self-employed.

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21234Web developers and programmers

Web developers and programmers use a variety of programming languages to design, create and modify Web sites. They analyze users’ needs to implement content, graphics, performance, and Web site capacity. They may also integrate Web sites with other computer applications. They are employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, advertising agencies or they may be self-employed.

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213Professional occupations in engineering
2130Civil and mechanical engineers
21300Civil engineers

Civil engineers plan, design, develop and manage projects for the construction or repair of buildings, earth structures, powerhouses, roads, airports, railways, rapid transit facilities, bridges, tunnels, canals, dams, ports and coastal installations and systems related to highway and transportation services, water distribution and sanitation. They may also specialize in foundation analysis, building and structural inspection, surveying, geomatics and municipal planning. They are employed by engineering consulting companies, in all levels of government, by construction firms and in many other industries, or they may be self-employed.

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21301Mechanical engineers

Mechanical engineers research, design and develop machinery and systems for heating, ventilating and air conditioning, power generation, transportation, processing and manufacturing. They also perform duties related to the evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems. They are employed by consulting firms, by power-generating utilities and in a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries, or they may be self-employed.

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2131Electrical, electronics and computer engineers
21310Electrical and electronics engineers

Electrical and electronics engineers design, plan, research, evaluate and test electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and by a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries and government.

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21311Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)

Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) research, plan, design, develop, modify, evaluate and integrate computer and telecommunications hardware and related equipment, and information and communication system networks including mainframe systems, local and wide area networks, fibre-optic networks, wireless communication networks, intranets, the Internet and other data communications systems. They are employed by computer and telecommunication hardware manufacturers, by engineering, manufacturing and telecommunications firms, in information technology consulting firms, by governmental, educational and research institutions and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2132Manufacturing and processing engineers
21320Chemical engineers

Chemical engineers research, design, and develop chemical processes and equipment, oversee the operation and maintenance of industrial chemical, plastics, pharmaceutical, resource, pulp and paper, and food processing plants and perform duties related to chemical quality control, environmental protection and biochemical or biotechnical engineering. They are employed in a wide range of manufacturing and processing industries, consulting firms, government, research and educational institutions.

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21321Industrial and manufacturing engineers

Industrial and manufacturing engineers conduct studies, and develop and supervise programs to achieve the best use of equipment, human resources, technology, materials and procedures to enhance efficiency and productivity. They are employed in consulting firms, manufacturing and processing companies, in government, financial, health care and other institutions, or they may be self-employed.

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21322Metallurgical and materials engineers

Metallurgical and materials engineers conduct studies of the properties and characteristics of metals and other non-metallic materials and plan, design and develop machinery and processes to concentrate, extract, refine and process metals, alloys and other materials such as ceramics, semiconductors and composite materials. They are employed in consulting engineering firms, mining, metal processing and manufacturing companies, and in government, research and educational institutions.

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2133Natural resources engineers
21330Mining engineers

Mining engineers plan, design, organize and supervise the development of mines, mine facilities, systems and equipment; and prepare and supervise the extraction of metallic or non-metallic minerals and ores from underground or surface mines. They are employed by mining companies, consulting engineering companies, manufacturers, government and in educational and research institutions.

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21331Geological engineers

Geological engineers conduct geological and geotechnical studies to assess suitability of locations for civil engineering, mining and oil and gas projects; and plan, design, develop and supervise programs of geological data acquisition and analysis and the preparation of geological engineering reports and recommendations. They are employed in consulting engineering companies, electrical utilities, mining and petroleum companies and in government and research and educational institutions.

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21332Petroleum engineers

Petroleum engineers conduct studies for the exploration, development and extraction of oil and gas deposits; and plan, design, develop and supervise projects for the drilling, completion, testing and re-working of oil and gas wells. They are employed by petroleum producing companies, consulting companies, well logging or testing companies, government, and research and educational institutions.

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2139Other engineers
21390Aerospace engineers

Aerospace engineers research, design and develop aerospace vehicles, aerospace systems and their components, and perform duties related to their testing, evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance. They are employed by aircraft and spacecraft manufacturers, air transport carriers, and in government and educational and research institutions.

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21399Other professional engineers

Other professional engineers include agricultural and bio-resource engineers, biomedical engineers, engineering physicists and engineering scientists, marine and naval engineers, textile engineers and other specialized engineering occupations.

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22Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences
221Technical occupations related to natural sciences
2210Technical occupations in physical sciences
22100Chemical technologists and technicians

Chemical technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in chemical engineering, chemical and biochemical research and analysis, industrial chemistry, chemical quality control and environmental protection. They are employed by research and development and quality control laboratories, consulting engineering companies, in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and a variety of other manufacturing and processing industries, and by utilities, health, educational and government establishments.

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22101Geological and mineral technologists and technicians

Geological and mineral technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in the fields of oil and gas exploration and production, geophysics, petroleum engineering, geology, mining and mining engineering, mineralogy, extractive and physical metallurgy, metallurgical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology and engineering firms, and by governments and educational institutions as well as by a variety of manufacturing, construction and utilities companies.

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2211Technical occupations in life sciences
22110Biological technologists and technicians

Biological technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals working in fields such as agriculture, resource management, environmental protection, plant and animal biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology and health sciences, or may work independently in these fields. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, manufacturers of food products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology companies, health, research and educational institutions, environmental consulting companies, and resource and utilities companies.

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22111Agricultural and fish products inspectors

Agricultural and fish products inspectors inspect agricultural and fish products for conformity to prescribed production, storage and transportation standards. They are employed by government departments and agencies and by private sector food processing companies. Supervisors of agricultural and fish products inspectors are also included in this unit group.

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22112Forestry technologists and technicians

Forestry technologists and technicians may work independently or perform technical and supervisory functions in support of forestry research, forest management, forest harvesting, forest resource conservation and environmental protection. They are employed by the forest industry sector, provincial and federal governments, consulting firms, and other industries and institutions, or they may be self-employed.

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22113Conservation and fishery officers

Conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers enforce federal and provincial regulations established for the protection of fish, wildlife and other natural resources and collect and relay information on resource management. They are employed by federal and provincial government departments.

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22114Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists

Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists survey and assess landscapes; draw sketches and build models of landscape designs; construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscaped environments; advise clients on issues related to horticulture such as irrigation; breed, cultivate and study plants; and treat injured and diseased trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers and contractors, lawn service and tree care establishments, golf courses, nurseries and greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and national parks, or they may be self-employed.

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222Technical occupations related to applied sciences (except engineering)
2221Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology
22210Architectural technologists and technicians

Architectural technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical assistance to professional architects and civil design engineers in conducting research, preparing drawings, architectural models, specifications and contracts and in supervising construction projects. They are employed by architectural and construction firms, and governments.

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22211Industrial designers

Industrial designers conceptualize and produce designs for manufactured products. They are employed by manufacturing industries and private design firms or they may be self-employed.

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22212Drafting technologists and technicians

Drafting technologists and technicians prepare engineering designs, drawings and related technical information, such as building information models (BIM), in multidisciplinary engineering teams or in support of engineers, architects or industrial designers, or they may work independently. They are employed by consulting and construction companies, utility, resource and manufacturing companies, all levels of government and by a wide range of other establishments.

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22213Land survey technologists and technicians

Land survey technologists and technicians conduct or participate in surveys to determine the exact locations and relative positions of natural features and other structures on the earth's surface, underground and underwater. They are employed by all levels of government, architectural and engineering firms, and by private sector surveying establishments.

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22214Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology

Technical occupations in geomatics include aerial survey, remote sensing, geographic information systems, cartographic and photogrammetric technologists and technicians, who gather, analyze, interpret and use geospatial information for applications in natural resources, geology, environmental research and land use planning. Meteorological technologists and technicians observe weather and atmospheric conditions, record, interpret, transmit and report on meteorological data, and provide weather information to the agricultural, natural resources and transportation industries and the public. Geomatics technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of government, utilities, mapping, computer software, forestry, architectural, engineering and consulting firms and other related establishments. Meteorological technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of government, the media, natural resources, utilities and transportation companies and consulting firms.

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2222Technical occupations in computer and information systems
22220Computer network and web technicians

Computer network technicians establish, operate, maintain and coordinate the use of local and wide area networks (LANs and WANs), mainframe networks, hardware, software and related computer equipment. Web technicians set up and maintain internet, extranet and intranet Web sites and Web-server hardware and software, and monitor and optimize network connectivity and performance. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors. Computer network and Web technicians who are supervisors are included in this group.

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22221User support technicians

User support technicians provide first-line technical support to computer users experiencing difficulties with computer hardware and with computer applications and communications software. They are employed by computer hardware manufacturers and retailers, software developers, in call centres and in information technology units throughout the public and private sectors. They are also employed by independent technical support companies or they may be self-employed.

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22222Information systems testing technicians

Information systems testing technicians execute test plans to evaluate the performance of software applications and information and telecommunications systems. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.

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2223Technical inspectors and regulatory officers
22230Non-destructive testers and inspectors

Non-destructive testers and inspectors operate radiographic, ultrasonic, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current and similar testing equipment to detect discontinuities in objects of various compositions and materials. They are employed by quality control, maintenance and safety departments of manufacturing, processing, transportation, energy and other companies and by private industrial inspection establishments.

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22231Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers

Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers inspect transportation vehicles such as aircraft, watercraft, automobiles and trucks and weighing and measuring devices such as scales and meters as well as industrial instruments, processes and equipment for conformity to government and industry standards and regulations. They are employed by government agencies and in the private sector.

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22232Occupational health and safety specialists

Occupational health and safety specialists review, evaluate and monitor health and safety hazards and develop strategies to prevent, control and eliminate accidents and occupational injuries. They inspect the workplace environments, equipment and practices to ensure compliance with organization and government environment, health and safety standards and regulations. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.

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22233Construction inspectors

Construction inspectors inspect the construction and maintenance of new and existing buildings, bridges, highways and industrial construction to ensure that specifications and building codes are observed and monitor work site safety. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, construction companies, architectural and civil engineering consulting firms or they may be self-employed.

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223Technical occupations related to engineering
2230Technical occupations in civil, mechanical and industrial engineering
22300Civil engineering technologists and technicians

Civil engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other professionals, or may work independently in fields such as structural engineering, municipal engineering, construction design and supervision, highways and transportation engineering, water resources engineering, geotechnical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by consulting engineering and construction companies, public works, transportation and other government departments and in many other industries.

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22301Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians

Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in mechanical engineering fields such as the design, development, maintenance and testing of machines, components, tools, heating and ventilating systems, geothermal power plants, power generation and power conversion plants, manufacturing plants and equipment. They are employed by consulting engineering, manufacturing and processing companies, institutions and government departments.

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22302Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians

Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the development of production methods, facilities and systems, and the planning, estimating, measuring and scheduling of work. They are employed by manufacturing and insurance companies, government departments, and establishments in other industries.

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22303Construction estimators

Construction estimators analyze costs of and prepare estimates on civil engineering, architectural, structural, electrical and mechanical construction projects. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and major electrical, mechanical and trade contractors, or they may be self-employed.

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2231Technical occupations in electronics and electrical engineering
22310Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians

Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical support and services in the design, development, testing, production and operation of electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and in governments and a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation industries.

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22311Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)

Electronic service technicians service and repair household and business electronic equipment such as audio and video systems, computers and peripherals, office equipment and other consumer electronic equipment and assemblies. They are employed by electronic service and retail establishments, by wholesale distributors and within service departments of electronic manufacturing companies. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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22312Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics

Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics repair, maintain, calibrate, adjust, and install industrial measuring and controlling instrumentation. They are employed by pulp and paper processing companies, nuclear and hydro power generating companies, mining, petrochemical and natural gas companies, industrial instrument and other manufacturing companies, and by industrial instrument servicing establishments. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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22313Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors

Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors install, adjust, repair and overhaul aircraft instrument, electrical or avionics systems on aircraft. This unit group also includes avionics inspectors who inspect instrument, electrical and avionics systems following assembly, modification, repair or overhaul. They are employed by aircraft manufacturing, maintenance, repair and overhaul establishments and by airlines and other aircraft operators. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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3Health occupations
30Specialized middle management occupations in health care
300Specialized middle management occupations in health care
3001Managers in health care
30010Managers in health care

Managers in health care plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care services, such as diagnosis and treatment, nursing and therapy, within institutions, and in other settings, that provide health care services. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes and other health care organizations.

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31Professional occupations in health
311Health treating and consultation services professionals
3110Physicians and veterinarians
31100Specialists in clinical and laboratory medicine

Specialists in clinical and laboratory medicine diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders and act as consultants to other physicians. Specialists in laboratory medicine study the nature, cause and development of diseases in humans. Specialists in clinical medicine usually work in private practice or in a hospital while those in laboratory medicine usually work in hospitals. Residents in training to become specialists in clinical and laboratory medicine are included in this unit group.

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31101Specialists in surgery

Specialists in surgery perform and supervise surgical procedures. Specialists in surgery usually work in hospitals. Residents in training to become specialists in surgery are included in this unit group.

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31102General practitioners and family physicians

General practitioners and family physicians diagnose and treat the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of patients. They provide primary contact and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Residents in training to be general practitioners or family physicians are included in this unit group.

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31103Veterinarians

Veterinarians prevent, diagnose and treat diseases and disorders in animals and advise clients on the feeding, hygiene, housing and general care of animals. They can also perform surgical procedures. They work in private practice or may be employed by animal clinics, farms, laboratories, government or industry.

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3111Dentists, optometrists and audiologists
31110Dentists

Dentists diagnose, treat, prevent and control disorders of the teeth and mouth. They work in private practice or may be employed in hospitals, clinics, public health facilities or universities.

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31111Optometrists

Optometrists examine eyes to assess and diagnose ocular diseases and disorders. They prescribe and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses and recommend treatments such as exercises to correct vision problems or ocular disorders. They work in private practice, hospitals, clinics, community health centres, rehabilitation centres, the optical industry, government, and universities .

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31112Audiologists and speech-language pathologists

Audiologists diagnose, evaluate and treat individuals with peripheral and central hearing loss, tinnitus and balance problems. Speech-language pathologists diagnose, assess and treat human communication disorders including speech, fluency, language, voice and swallowing disorders. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists are employed in hospitals, community and public health centres, extended care facilities, day clinics, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions, or may work in private practice. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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3112Pharmacists and dietitians
31120Pharmacists

Community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists compound and dispense prescribed pharmaceuticals and provide consultative services to both clients and health care providers. They are employed in retail and health centre pharmacies, or they may be self-employed. Industrial pharmacists participate in the research, development, promotion and manufacture of pharmaceutical products. They are employed in pharmaceutical companies and government departments and agencies.

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31121Dietitians and nutritionists

Dietitians and nutritionists assess nutrition related issues of individuals and groups and develop, implement and evaluate nutrition care plans to prevent, treat and manage disease. They manage food and nutrition service systems, and plan health promotion programs. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, home health-care agencies and extended care facilities, community health centres, the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries, educational institutions, and government and sports organizations, or they may work as private consultants.

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312Therapy and assessment professionals
3120Therapy and assessment professionals
31200Psychologists

Psychologists assess and diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients, provide therapy, conduct research and apply theory relating to behaviour and mental processes. Psychologists help clients work toward the maintenance and enhancement of psychological, physical, intellectual, emotional, social and interpersonal functioning. They work in private practice or in clinics, correctional facilities, hospitals, mental health facilities, rehabilitation centres, community service organizations, businesses, schools and universities, and in government and private research agencies.

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31201Chiropractors

Chiropractors assess, diagnose, treat and prevent patients' neuromuscular-skeletal disorders of the spine, nervous system, pelvis and other body joints using corrective manipulation including spinal column adjustments or other complementary therapies. They are usually in private practice or in clinics with other health practitioners.

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31202Physiotherapists

Physiotherapists assess clients and plan and carry out individually designed treatment programs to maintain, improve or restore physical functioning and mobility, alleviate pain and prevent physical dysfunction in clients. They are employed in hospitals, clinics, industry, sports organizations, rehabilitation centres and extended care facilities, or may work in private practice.

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31203Occupational therapists

Occupational therapists develop individual and group programs with people affected by illness, injury, developmental disorders, emotional or psychological problems and aging to maintain, restore or increase their ability to care for themselves and to engage in work, school or leisure. They also develop and implement health promotion programs with individuals, community groups and employers. They are employed in health care facilities, in schools, and by private and social services agencies, or they may be self-employed.

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31204Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment

Kinesiologists and other professional occupations in therapy and assessment include specialized therapists who use techniques such as athletic or recreational therapy to aid in the treatment of mental and physical disabilities or injuries. They are employed by establishments such as hospitals, rehabilitation centres, extended health care facilities, clinics, recreational centres, nursing homes, industry, educational institutions and sports organizations, or they may work in private practice.

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31209Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating

Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating, who are not elsewhere classified, diagnose and treat the diseases and injuries of patients. This unit group includes doctors of podiatric medicine, naturopathic medicine, and osteopathic medicine, and also includes chiropodists and podiatrists. They work in private practices, clinics and hospitals.

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313Nursing and allied health professionals
3130Nursing and allied health professionals
31300Nursing coordinators and supervisors

Nursing coordinators and supervisors coordinate and supervise the activities of registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel in the provision of patient care. They are employed in health care institutions such as hospitals, clinics and nursing homes, and in nursing agencies.

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31301Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses

Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses provide direct nursing care to patients, deliver health education programs and provide consultative services regarding issues relevant to the practice of nursing. They are employed in a variety of settings including hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, community agencies, companies, private homes and public and private organizations or they may be self-employed.

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31302Nurse practitioners

Nurse practitioners are registered nurses with additional education, advanced knowledge and nursing experience, and a specialty of practice. They provide a range of health services to patients and deliver preventive and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. Nurse practitioners work in conjunction with physicians and collaboratively with other nursing colleagues and health-care providers, or they may work independently. They are employed in community health centres, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and rehabilitation centres. Nurse practitioners may specialize in primary healthcare or acute care.

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31303Physician assistants, midwives and allied health professionals

Physician assistants and midwives provide primary health care and treatment in conjunction with physicians and in collaboration with other health professionals. Physician assistants provide a range of health services to patients delivering preventive and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. Midwives provide full-course care to women and their babies during the pre- and post-natal period. This unit group also includes professionals, such as genetic counsellors, orthoptists and pathologists’ assistants, who work in collaboration with primary health occupations. Genetic counsellors assess individual or family risk of genetic conditions, and provide information to individuals, families and healthcare providers to promote informed choice. Orthoptists diagnose and treat binocular disorders. Pathologists’ assistants assist at autopsies and examinations of surgical specimens, or perform autopsies under a pathologist’s supervision. Physician assistants usually work under physicians in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Midwives are employed in hospitals, clinics, birthing centres or in private practice. Genetic counsellors usually work in private practice, hospitals, clinics and research institutes. Orthoptists work under an ophthalmologist, particularly in private practices or clinics. Pathologists’ assistants are usually employed in hospitals and universities.

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32Technical occupations in health
321Technical occupations in health (except practitioners of natural healing)
3210Technical occupations in therapy and assessment
32100Opticians

Opticians assist clients in the selection of eyeglass frames, take the necessary measurements and arrange for the production of eyeglasses or contact lenses, mount lenses in eyeglass frames and fit clients with final prescription eyeglasses and contact lenses. They are employed in optical retail outlets or other establishments with optical dispensing departments, or they may be self-employed. Student opticians and opticians who are managers of optical retail outlets are included in this unit group.

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32101Licensed practical nurses

Licensed practical nurses provide nursing care usually under the direction of medical practitioners, registered nurses or other health team members. Operating room technicians prepare patients and provide assistance to medical practitioners prior to and during surgery. Licensed practical nurses are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, companies, private homes and community health centres. Operating room technicians are employed in hospitals.

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32102Paramedical occupations

Workers in paramedical occupations administer pre-hospital emergency medical care to patients with injuries or medical illnesses and transport them to hospitals or other medical facilities for further medical care. They are employed by private ambulance services, hospitals, fire departments, government departments and agencies, manufacturing firms, mining companies and other private sector establishments. Paramedics who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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32103Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists

Respiratory therapists assist physicians in the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disorders. Clinical perfusionists provide technical support to patients undergoing cardiac surgery and patients requiring cardio-respiratory support. Cardiopulmonary technologists assist physicians in the technical aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Respiratory therapists are employed in hospitals, extended care facilities, public health centres, sleep, private or dental clinics and respiratory home care companies. Clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists are primarily employed in hospitals. Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

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32104Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians

Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians provide technical support to veterinarians by caring for animals and assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of animal health disorders. They are employed in veterinary clinics, animal hospitals, animal shelters, humane societies, zoos, animal research laboratories, pharmaceutical companies and government. Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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32109Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment

Other technical workers in therapy and assessment perform various technical therapy and assessment functions. Some may assist professionals such as audiologists, speech-language pathologists, ophthalmologists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists. They are employed in hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, community health centres, educational institutions, hearing aid retail stores, in the private practices of the professionals they assist, or they may be self-employed.

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3211Technical occupations in dental health care
32110Denturists

Denturists examine patients and design, construct and repair removable dentures. Most denturists work in private practice.

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32111Dental hygienists and dental therapists

Dental hygienists provide dental hygiene treatment and services related to oral health promotion and disease and mouth injury prevention. They are employed in a variety of settings including dentists' offices, hospitals, private clinics, educational institutions, public health agencies or they may be self-employed. Dental therapists provide limited restorative dental treatment in addition to dental hygiene services. They are employed by the federal government and the provincial governments to provide services in rural and remote communities.

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32112Dental technologists and technicians

Dental technologists and technicians design, prepare and fabricate dentures and dental devices as prescribed by dentists and other specialists. They are employed in dental laboratories. Dental technologists and technicians who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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3212Medical technologists and technicians
32120Medical laboratory technologists

Medical laboratory technologists conduct medical laboratory tests, experiments and analyses to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and prevention of disease. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, blood banks, community and private clinics, research facilities and post-secondary educational institutions. Medical laboratory technologists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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32121Medical radiation technologists

Medical radiation technologists use radiation and electromagnetism to produce images of body structures for the diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease and use radiation therapy equipment to administer radiation treatment. They are employed in hospitals, cancer treatment centres, clinics, radiological laboratories, colleges and universities. Medical radiation technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

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32122Medical sonographers

Medical sonographers operate ultrasound equipment to produce and record images of various parts of the body to aid physicians in monitoring pregnancies and in diagnosing cardiac, ophthalmic, vascular and other medical disorders. They are employed in clinics and hospitals. Medical sonographers who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.

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32123Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists

Cardiology technologists operate electrocardiogram equipment and use medical imaging technologies to record cardiac activity of patients to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of heart disease. Electrophysiological diagnostic technologists operate electroencephalographic, electromyographic and other electrophysiological diagnostic equipment to assist physicians in diagnosing diseases, injuries and abnormalities. Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group. They are employed in clinics, hospitals and medical laboratories.

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32124Pharmacy technicians

Pharmacy technicians perform technical functions relating to prescriptions including gathering patients’ information, product preparation, product distribution and inventory control. They work closely with pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care to clients. Pharmacy technicians are employed in retail and hospital pharmacies, long-term care facilities and by pharmaceutical manufacturers. Pharmacy technicians who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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32129Other medical technologists and technicians

Other medical technologists and technicians include medical technologists and technicians, such as dietary technicians, ocularists, prosthetists, orthotists, prosthetic technicians and orthotic technicians. Dietary technicians are employed in health care and commercial food service establishments such as hospitals, extended care facilities, nursing homes, schools, cafeterias and fast food outlets. Ocularists are employed in custom ocular prosthetic laboratories, or they may be self-employed. Prosthetists, orthotists and prosthetic and orthotic technicians are employed in hospitals, clinics, prosthetics and orthotics laboratories, and prosthetic device manufacturing companies. Prosthetists and orthotists may also be self-employed.

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322Practitioners of natural healing
3220Practitioners of natural healing
32200Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners and acupuncturists

Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and acupuncturists assess, treat and prevent diseases, conditions, disorders or imbalances of patients’ using various forms of treatment including acupuncture, herbology or other holistic health approaches. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres and health clubs.

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32201Massage therapists

Massage therapists assess soft tissues and joints of the body for treatment and prevention of dysfunction, injury, pain and physical disorders. They work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions.

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32209Other practitioners of natural healing

Practitioners of natural healing provide health care to patients using various forms of treatment including herbology, reflexology or relaxation techniques to promote, maintain and restore the holistic health of patients. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, or are employed by clinics, health clubs and spas.

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33Assisting occupations in support of health services
331Assisting occupations in support of health services
3310Assisting occupations in support of health services
33100Dental assistants and dental laboratory assistants

Dental assistants assist dentists, dental hygienists and dental therapists during the examination and treatment of patients and perform clerical functions. Dental laboratory assistants assist dental technologists and technicians in preparing and fabricating dentures and other dental devices. Dental assistants work in dentists' offices, community health centres, clinics and in educational institutions. Dental laboratory assistants are employed in dental laboratories.

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33101Medical laboratory assistants and related technical occupations

Medical laboratory assistants and workers in related technical occupations perform pre-analysis and pre-testing tasks such as collecting blood and other samples, processing specimens, and preparing special chemicals called reagents for use in testing. They conduct routine medical laboratory tests and set up, clean and maintain medical laboratory equipment. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, clinics, research facilities, post-secondary educational institutions and government research laboratories.

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33102Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates

Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates assist nurses, hospital staff and physicians in the basic care of patients. They are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, assisted care facilities for the elderly and other health care establishments. Emergency medical care attendant are employed by private ambulance services, urgent care centers or other health facilities.

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33103Pharmacy technical assistants and pharmacy assistants

Pharmacy technical assistants perform technical tasks related to preparing medications under a pharmacist’s supervision. They also assist in filling prescriptions and managing patient files. Pharmacy assistants perform clerical functions and assists pharmacists and pharmacy technicians with drug dispensing tasks. Pharmacy technical assistants and pharmacy assistants are employed in retail and hospital pharmacies, long-term care facilities and by pharmaceutical manufacturers.

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33109Other assisting occupations in support of health services

Other assisting workers in support of health services provide services and assistance to health care professionals and other health care staff. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, offices of health care professionals, nursing homes, optical retail stores and laboratories, and medical pathology laboratories.

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4Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services
40Managers in public administration, in education and social and community services and in public protection services
400Managers in public administration, in education and social and community services and in public protection services
4001Managers in public administration
40010Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration

Government managers in health and social policy development and program administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and administration of health care policies, social policies and related programs designed to protect and promote the health and social welfare of individuals and communities. They are employed by all levels of government.

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40011Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration

Government managers in economic analysis, policy development and program administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate economic policy, research and programs in areas of government activity such as taxation, international trade, labour markets, transportation or agriculture. They also plan and direct policies and programs to promote industrial and commercial business development in urban and rural areas. They are employed by all levels of government.

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40012Government managers - education policy development and program administration

Government managers in education policy development and program administration organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and administration of elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed by all levels of government.

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40019Other managers in public administration

Other managers in public administration plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development of policies and programs which govern the daily operations of legislatures and other activities unique to government such as intergovernmental affairs and elections. They are employed by all levels of government.

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4002Managers in education
40020Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training

Administrators in post-secondary education and vocational training include faculty administrators and registrars of colleges or universities and administrators of vocational training schools. Faculty administrators manage the academic and related activities of faculties of colleges or universities. Registrars manage registration activities and academic records systems of colleges or universities. Administrators of vocational training schools manage the operations of vocational schools specializing in trades, technology, business or other vocational subjects.

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40021School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education

School principals plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of teachers and other staff of an elementary or secondary school. They are employed by public and private schools. Administrators of elementary and secondary education plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the academic affairs of a school system. They are employed by school boards.

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4003Managers in social, community and correctional services
40030Managers in social, community and correctional services

Managers in social, community and correctional services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the programs and activities of social service and community agencies, correctional institutions, counselling departments, labour organizations, professional associations, political parties and non-governmental organizations.

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4004Managers in public protection services
40040Commissioned police officers and related occupations in public protection services

Commissioned police officers and related occupations in public protection services plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate police force administration and police activities such as maintaining law and order and detecting and preventing crime. They are employed by municipal, provincial and federal governments. This unit group includes officers from the rank of staff sergeant to police commissioner. Commissioned officers in the railway police, deputy chief coroners, and deputy chief medical examiners are also included in this unit group.

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40041Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers

Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate firefighting operations and fire prevention activities in fire departments. They are employed by municipal and federal governments and by industrial establishments with firefighting services.

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40042Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces

Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces plan, organize, command, direct, control and evaluate, the operations of their organization in relation to established objectives. Senior commissioned officers formulate military and strategic policies which establish the direction to be taken by the Canadian Forces. All ranks of commissioned officers in the Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Navy are included in this unit group.

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41Professional occupations in law, education, social, community and government services
411Professional occupations in law
4110Judges, lawyers and Quebec notaries
41100Judges

Judges adjudicate civil and criminal cases and administer justice in courts of law. Judges preside over federal and provincial courts.

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41101Lawyers and Quebec notaries

Lawyers and Quebec notaries advise clients on legal matters, represent clients before administration boards and draw up legal documents such as contracts and wills. Lawyers also plead cases, represent clients before tribunals and conduct prosecutions in courts of law. Lawyers are employed in law firms and prosecutor's offices. Quebec notaries are employed in notary offices. Both lawyers and Quebec notaries are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments and various business establishments or they may be self-employed. Articling students are included in this unit group.

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412Professional occupations in education services
4120University professors and post-secondary assistants
41200University professors and lecturers

University professors and lecturers teach courses to undergraduate and graduate students and conduct research at universities. University professors who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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41201Post-secondary teaching and research assistants

Post-secondary teaching and research assistants assist university professors, community college and CEGEP teachers and other faculty members in teaching and research activities at universities and colleges.

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4121College and other vocational instructors
41210College and other vocational instructors

College and other vocational instructors teach applied arts, academic, technical and vocational subjects to students at community colleges, CEGEPs, agricultural colleges, technical and vocational institutes, language schools and other college level schools. This unit group also includes trainers who are employed by private training establishments, companies, community agencies and governments to deliver internal training or development courses. College teachers who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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4122Secondary, elementary and kindergarten school teachers
41220Secondary school teachers

Secondary school teachers prepare and teach academic, technical, vocational or specialized subjects at public and private secondary schools. Secondary school teachers who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.

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41221Elementary school and kindergarten teachers

Elementary school and kindergarten teachers teach basic subjects such as reading, writing and arithmetic or specialized subjects such as English or French as a second language at public and private elementary schools.

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413Professional occupations in social and community services
4130Social and community service professionals
41300Social workers

Social workers help individuals, couples, families, groups, communities and organizations develop the skills and resources they need to enhance social functioning and provide counselling, therapy and referral to other supportive social services. Social workers also respond to other social needs and issues such as unemployment, racism and poverty. They are employed by hospitals, school boards, social service agencies, child welfare organizations, correctional facilities, community agencies, employee assistance programs and Aboriginal band councils, or they may work in private practice.

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41301Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies

Therapists in counselling and related specialized therapies assist individuals and groups of clients to identify, understand and overcome personal problems and achieve personal objectives. They can be specialized to work on specific problems and they may practice psychotherapy. They are employed by counselling centres, social service agencies, group homes, government agencies, family therapy centres, and educational, health care and rehabilitation facilities, or they may work in private practice.

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41302Religious leaders

Religious leaders conduct religious services, administer the rites of a religious faith or denomination, provide spiritual and moral guidance and perform other functions associated with the practice of a religion. They perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship. They may also work in other institutions such as schools, hospitals and correctional facilities.

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4131Police investigators and probation officers
41310Police investigators and other investigative occupations

Police investigators and professionals in related investigative occupations follow leads and investigate circumstances relating to crimes committed and obtain information to prevent crimes. They plan and coordinate investigations, collect evidence, interview suspects, victims, witnesses and other stakeholders, conduct surveillance and testify in court. They are employed by municipal, provincial and federal governments. This unit group includes coroners and medical examiners.

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41311Probation and parole officers

Probation officers monitor the conduct and behaviour of criminal offenders serving probation terms and serving sentences of two years less a day. They are employed by provincial government. Parole officers monitor the reintegration of criminal offenders serving the remainder of sentences on conditional release and individuals that are subject to a long term supervision order. They also assess inmates and develop rehabilitation programs for criminal offenders who are incarcerated in correctional facilities. They are employed by federal and provincial governments. Both, probation and parole officers work in the community and in correctional facilities including young offender's correctional facilities.

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4132Educational and employment counsellors
41320Educational counsellors

Educational counsellors advise current and prospective students on educational issues, career planning and personal development, and coordinate the provision of counselling services to students, parents, teachers, faculty and staff. They are employed by school boards and post-secondary educational institutions.

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41321Career development practitioners and career counsellors (except education)

Career development practitioners and career counsellors (except education) provide assistance and information to job seeker clients on all aspects of employment search and career planning. They also provide advice and information to employer clients regarding employment issues and human resources. They are employed by public and private employment agencies, rehabilitation centres, hospitals, human resource departments of establishments, consulting firms, correctional facilities and by federal and provincial governments. Supervisors of career development practitioners and career counsellors (except education) are included in this unit group.

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414Professional occupations in government services
4140Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers
41400Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, prepare reports, provide consultation and advice and administer programs in a variety of areas related to the natural and applied sciences. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, computer and office furniture manufacturers, educational institutions, research organizations, consulting firms, environmental and conservation organizations, or they may be self-employed.

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41401Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts

Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts conduct research, monitor data, analyze information and prepare reports and plans to resolve economic and business problems and develop models to analyze, explain and forecast economic behaviour and patterns. They advise on matters such as finance, fiscal and monetary policy, international trade, agricultural and natural resource commodities and labour and industrial markets. They are employed by government departments and agencies and throughout the private sector in associations, unions, research organizations, banks and investment firms.

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41402Business development officers and market researchers and analysts

Business development officers and market researchers and analysts conduct research, provide statistical and analytical supports, identify market trends and potential opportunities, formulate policies and manage programs to stimulate industrial and commercial business investment or tourism in urban and rural areas, or to promote commercial or industrial products and services. They are employed by government departments, international organizations, marketing and analytics firms and business associations or may be self-employed.

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41403Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, develop policy and implement or administer programs in areas such as consumer affairs, employment, home economics, immigration, law enforcement, corrections, human rights, housing, labour, family services, foreign aid and international development. They are employed by government departments and agencies, hospitals, educational institutions, consulting establishments, professional associations, research institutes, non-government organizations and international organizations or they may be self-employed.

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41404Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, produce reports and administer health care policies and programs. They are employed by government departments and agencies, consulting establishments, universities, research institutes, hospitals, community agencies, educational institutions, professional associations, non-governmental organizations and international organizations.

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41405Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, produce reports and administer elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed by government departments, school boards, research institutes, professional associations and educational and other organizations throughout the public and private sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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41406Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers

Policy researchers, consultants and program officers in recreation, sports and fitness oversee and administer recreation, sports and fitness programs and activities, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop programs and policies related to recreation, sports and physical fitness. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, recreation, sports, fitness and health care facilities, retirement homes, community centres, sports and fitness consulting firms and organizations, or they may be self-employed.

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41407Program officers unique to government

Program officers unique to government are primarily concerned with the administration and operation of government institutions, such as Parliament, and activities unique to the operations of government, such as international relations, federal-provincial affairs, elections and tribunals.

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41409Other professional occupations in social science

Other professional occupations in social science include anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, historians, linguists, political scientists, sociologists and other professional occupations in social science. They are employed in universities and throughout the public and private sectors.

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42Front-line public protection services and paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community, education services
421Occupations in front-line public protection services
4210Occupations in front-line public protection services
42100Police officers (except commissioned)

Police officers maintain order and enforce laws and regulations. They respond to emergency calls, patrol public areas, regulate traffic, control crowds, arrest offenders and build community relationships. They are employed by municipal and federal governments and some provincial and regional governments.

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42101Firefighters

Firefighters carry out firefighting and fire prevention activities, and assist in other emergencies. They are employed by municipal, provincial and federal governments and by large industrial establishments that have internal firefighting services. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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42102Specialized members of the Canadian Armed Forces

Specialized members of the Canadian Armed Forces provide critical technological support for military armament. They are primarily responsible for the maintenance, inspection and technical support of all Canadian Army equipment. They also follow the military and strategic policies established by the leadership of the Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Airforce, and the Royal Canadian Navy.

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422Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
4220Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
42200Paralegals and related occupations

Paralegals prepare legal documents and conduct research to assist lawyers or other professionals. Independent paralegals provide legal services to the public as allowed by government legislation, or provide paralegal services on contract to law firms or other establishments. Justices of the peace administer oaths, issue subpoenas, summonses and warrants and perform other court-related duties such as conducting bail hearings. Notaries public administer oaths, take affidavits, sign legal documents and perform other activities according to the scope of their practice. Trademark agents advise clients on intellectual property matters. Paralegals are employed by law firms, by record search companies and in legal departments throughout the public and private sectors. Independent paralegals are usually self-employed. Justices of the peace are employed by federal, provincial, municipal, and territorial courts. Notaries public are employed by government and in the public and private sectors or they may be self-employed. Trademark agents are employed by law firms and legal departments throughout the public and private sectors, trademark development and search firms or they may be self-employed.

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42201Social and community service workers

Social and community service workers administer and implement a variety of social assistance programs and community services, and assist clients to deal with personal and social problems. They are employed by social service and government agencies, mental health agencies, group homes, shelters, substance abuse centres, school boards, correctional facilities and other establishments.

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42202Early childhood educators and assistants

Early childhood educators plan, organize and implement programs for children between the ages of infancy and 12 years. Early childhood educator assistants provide care for infants and preschool- to school-age children under the guidance of early childhood educators. Early childhood educators and assistants lead children in activities to stimulate and develop their intellectual, physical and emotional growth and ensure their security and well-being. They are employed in child-care centres, day-care centres, kindergartens, agencies for exceptional children and other settings where early childhood education services are provided. Supervisors of early childhood educators and assistants are included in this unit group.

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42203Instructors of persons with disabilities

Instructors of persons with disabilities teach children and adults using a variety of techniques to facilitate communication, rehabilitation, social skills and increased independence. They are employed in rehabilitation centres, specialized educational institutes and throughout the school system.

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42204Religion workers

Religion workers include brothers, nuns, monks, religious education workers and others who provide support to ministers of religion or to a religious community and who perform certain functions associated with the practice of a religion. They may perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship; in institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons; or in industrial facilities, corporate enterprises; or they may work in private practice.

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43Assisting occupations in education and in legal and public protection
431Assisting occupations in education
4310Assisting occupations in education
43100Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants

Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants support students, and assist teachers and counsellors with teaching and non-instructional tasks. They assist in areas of personal care, teaching and behaviour management under the supervision of teachers or other child care professionals. They are employed in public and private elementary, secondary and special needs schools and treatment centres.

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43109Other instructors

Other instructors teach courses, such as motor vehicle or motorcycle driving, sailing and navigation, sewing or other courses, which are outside of educational institutions. They are employed by driving schools, fabric retailers and other commercial establishments or they may be self-employed. This unit group also includes modelling and finishing school instructors, driver's licence examiners, who are employed by provincial governments and tutors who provide instruction in elementary or secondary school subjects.

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432Assisting occupations in legal and public protection
4320Assisting occupations in legal and public protection
43200Sheriffs and bailiffs

Sheriffs execute and enforce court orders, warrants and writs, participate in seizure and sale of property and perform courtroom and other related duties. Bailiffs serve legal orders and documents, seize or repossess properties, evict tenants and perform other related activities. Sheriffs and bailiffs must usually complete a training program offered by the province to work in the provincial courts. They are employed by federal, provincial, territorial and municipal courts, and bailiffs may be employed as officers of the court or in private service as agents for creditors.

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43201Correctional service officers

Correctional service officers guard offenders and detainees and maintain order in correctional institutions and other places of detention. Primary workers develop women offender’s correctional plan and work with other service officers in the correctional team. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments. Correctional service officers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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43202By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers

By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers enforce by-laws and regulations of provincial and municipal governments. They are employed by provincial and municipal governments and agencies.

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43203Border services, customs, and immigration officers

Border services, customs, and immigration officers administer and enforce laws and regulations related to immigration, customs, and border crossing. They are employed by government agencies.

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43204Operations Members of the Canadian Armed Forces

Operations members of the Canadian Armed Forces provide operational support to soldiers including the proper functioning and testing of military equipment such as vehicles, ships and weapons. They follow the military and strategic policies established by the leadership of the Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Airforce and the Royal Canadian Navy.

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44Care providers and public protection support occupations
441Home care provider occupations
4410Home care provider occupations
44100Home child care providers

Home child care providers care for children on an ongoing or short-term basis. They care for the well-being and physical and social development of children, assist parents with child care and may assist with household duties. They provide care primarily in their own homes or in the children's homes, where they may also reside. They are employed by private households and child-care agencies, or they may be self-employed.

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44101Home support workers, caregivers and related occupations

Home support workers, caregivers and related occupations, provide personal care and companionship for seniors, persons with disabilities and convalescent clients. They provide care in the client's residence, where they may also reside. They are employed by home care and support agencies, private households, or they may be self-employed.

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442Primary combat members of the Canadian Armed Forces
4420Primary combat members of the Canadian Armed Forces
44200Primary combat members of the Canadian Armed Forces

Primary combat members of the Canadian Armed Forces provide collective defence measures to protect Canadian waters, land, air space and other interests. They conduct raids and ambushes in combat missions and conduct patrols and escorts in security and stability missions. They also follow the military and strategic policies established by the leadership of the Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Airforce and the Royal Canadian Navy.

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45Student monitors, crossing guards and related occupations
451Student monitors, crossing guards and related occupations
4510Student monitors, crossing guards and related occupations
45100Student monitors, crossing guards and related occupations

Student monitors, crossing guards and workers in related occupations supervise students to ensure their safety and monitor their behaviour during indoor or outdoor breaks and before and after school hours. School monitors are employed by public and private elementary and secondary schools. Crossing guards are employed by municipalities, public and private security agencies and schools.

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5Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
50Specialized middle management occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
500Specialized middle management occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
5001Managers in art, culture, recreation and sport
50010Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers

Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of libraries, archives, museums, art galleries or departments within such institutions. They are employed in libraries, archives, museums and non-retail art galleries.

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50011Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts

Managers in publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate operations within publishing firms, film, theatre and record production companies and broadcasting facilities. They are employed by radio and television stations, by newspaper, periodical and book publishing firms, and by film, theatre, record and video production companies.

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50012Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors

Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of comprehensive recreational, sports and fitness programs and services, national or provincial sports governing agencies and professional athletic teams. They are employed by municipalities, community and private recreational and fitness organizations, sports governing agencies and professional athletic team organizations.

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51Professional occupations in art and culture
511Professional occupations in art and culture
5110Librarians, archivists, conservators and curators
51100Librarians

Librarians select, develop, organize and maintain library collections and provide advisory services for users. They are employed in libraries or other establishments with library services throughout the public and private sectors.

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51101Conservators and curators

Conservators restore and conserve artifacts belonging to museums, galleries and owners of cultural property. Curators recommend the acquisition of museum artifacts and gallery works of art and research their artistic history. Conservators and curators are employed in museums, art galleries, archives, libraries, government agencies and universities. Conservators may be self-employed.

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51102Archivists

Archivists manage, process, store and disseminate information contained in an organization's archives. They acquire, store and research textual material, pictures, maps, architectural documents, electronic materials, films and videos, and sound recordings and multimedia materials. They are employed in archives, in the public and para-public sectors and in private sector organizations.

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5111Writing, translating and related communications professionals
51110Editors

Editors review, evaluate and edit manuscripts, articles, news reports and other material for publication, broadcast or interactive media and coordinate the activities of writers, journalists and other staff. They are employed by publishing firms, magazines, journals, newspapers, radio and television networks and stations, and by companies and government departments that produce publications such as newsletters, handbooks, manuals and Web sites. Editors may also work on a freelance basis.

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51111Authors and writers (except technical)

Authors and writers plan, research and write books, scripts, storyboards, plays, essays, speeches and other non-journalistic articles for publication or presentation. They are employed by advertising agencies, governments, large corporations, private consulting firms, publishing firms, multimedia/new-media companies and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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51112Technical writers

Technical writers write manuals and specifications for publication or presentation. They are employed by governments, large corporations, private consulting firms, publishing firms, and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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51113Journalists

Journalists research, investigate, interpret and communicate news and public affairs through newspapers, television, radio and other media. They are employed by radio and television networks and stations, newspapers and magazines. Journalists may also work on a freelance basis.

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51114Translators, terminologists and interpreters

Translators translate written material from one language to another. Interpreters translate oral communication from one language to another during speeches, meetings, conferences, debates and conversation, or in court or before administrative tribunals. Terminologists conduct research to itemize terms connected with a certain field, define them and find equivalents in another language. Sign language interpreters use sign language to translate spoken language and vice versa during meetings, conversations, television programs or in other instances. Translators, terminologists and interpreters are employed by government, private translation and interpretation agencies, in-house translation services, large private corporations, international organizations and the media, or they may be self-employed. Sign language interpreters work in schools and courts, and for social service agencies, interpretation services, government services and television stations, or they may be self-employed.

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5112Creative and performing artists
51120Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations

Producers, directors, choreographers and professionals in related occupations oversee and control the technical and artistic aspects of film, television, video game, radio, dance and theatre productions. They are employed by film production companies, radio and television stations, video game companies, broadcast departments, advertising companies, sound recording studios, record production companies and dance companies. They may also be self-employed.

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51121Conductors, composers and arrangers

Conductors, composers and arrangers conduct bands and orchestras, compose musical works and arrange instrumental and vocal compositions. They are employed by symphony and chamber orchestras, bands, choirs, sound recording companies, and orchestras for ballet and opera performances, or they may be self-employed.

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51122Musicians and singers

Musicians and singers perform with orchestras, choirs, opera companies and popular bands in establishments such as concert halls, lounges and theatres and in film, television and recording studios. This unit group also includes music teachers who usually teach in conservatories, academies and private homes.

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52Technical occupations in art, culture and sport
521Technical occupations in art and culture
5210Technical occupations in libraries and public archives
52100Library and public archive technicians

Library and public archive technicians assist users in accessing library or archive resources, assist in describing new acquisitions, participate in archive processing and storage, and conduct reference searches. They are employed by libraries and public archives.

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5211Technical occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
52110Film and video camera operators

Film and video camera operators operate motion picture and video cameras and related equipment to record news, live events, films, videos and television broadcasts. They are employed by television networks and stations, motion picture and video production companies and in-house communications facilities of large corporations.

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52111Graphic arts technicians

Graphic arts technicians assist in conceptualizing a project, interpreting design specifications or sketches, preparing the page make-up, lay-out and lettering, and preparing production materials for press, electronic or multimedia publishing. They are employed by publishing, communications, advertising, marketing, printing and multimedia establishments, and by television and film production companies. They may also be self-employed.

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52112Broadcast technicians

Broadcast technicians install, set up, test, operate and repair electronic equipment used to record and transmit live and taped radio and television programs and to produce audio and video streaming broadcasts for the Internet. They are employed by radio and television broadcasting networks and stations, by broadcast equipment companies and by Internet-based communication providers.

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52113Audio and video recording technicians

Audio and video recording technicians operate equipment to record, mix and edit sound, music and videotape, for motion pictures, television and radio programs, videos, recordings and live events. They are employed by multimedia companies, film, video and concert production companies, sound recording firms, theatre and dance companies, educational establishments, clubs, hotels, bands, radio stations, television networks and video production and editing companies.

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52114Announcers and other broadcasters

Announcers and other broadcasters read news, sports, weather, commercial and public service messages and host entertainment and information programs for broadcast on radio or television. They are primarily employed by radio and television stations and networks and by commercial firms that produce advertisements for radio or television.

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52119Other technical and coordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts

Workers in other technical and coordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts coordinate and perform specific activities for television, radio and motion picture productions, news broadcasts, theatre and stage productions, and other live or recorded productions. They are employed by television and radio stations and networks, recording studios, motion picture and video production companies, concert promoters and theatre, stage and dance companies.

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5212Graphic and interior designers
52120Graphic designers and illustrators

Graphic designers conceptualize and produce graphic art and visual materials to effectively communicate information for publications, advertising, films, packaging, posters, signs and interactive media such as Web sites and CDs. They are employed by advertising and graphic design firms, by establishments with advertising or communications departments and by multimedia production companies, or they may be self-employed. Graphic designers who are also supervisors, project managers or consultants are included in this unit group. Illustrators conceptualize and create illustrations to represent information through images. They are almost solely self-employed.

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52121Interior designers and interior decorators

Interior designers and interior decorators conceptualize and produce aesthetic, functional and safe designs for interior spaces in residential, commercial, cultural, institutional and industrial buildings. They are employed by architectural and interior design firms, retail establishments, construction companies, hospitals, airlines, hotel and restaurant chains, and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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53Occupations in art, culture and sport
531Occupations in art and culture
5310Occupations related to museums and art galleries
53100Registrars, restorers, interpreters and other occupations related to museum and art galleries

Registrars, restorers, interpreters and workers in other occupations related to museums and art galleries classify and catalogue museum artifacts and gallery works of art, construct and install exhibits and displays, restore, maintain and store museum and gallery collections, frame artwork, and perform other functions in support of curatorial and conservation activities. They are employed in museums and galleries. Picture framers and taxidermists may also be employed in retail settings or may be self-employed. This unit group also includes museum and other interpreters who conduct guided tours. They are employed by art galleries, museums, parks, aquariums, zoos, interpretive centres, botanical gardens, cultural centres, nature sanctuaries, historic and heritage sites, and other locations.

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5311Photographers and support occupations in arts and culture
53110Photographers

Photographers operate still cameras to photograph people, events, scenes, materials, products and other subjects. They are employed by photographic studios, newspapers, magazines, museums and government, or they may be self-employed.

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53111Motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and performing arts assistants and operators

Assistants and operators in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts perform duties related to these fields. They are employed by television and radio stations and networks, recording studios, motion picture and video production companies and by theatre and stage companies.

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5312Occupations in creative and performing art
53120Dancers

Dancers are employed by ballet and dance companies, television and film productions and nightclubs and similar establishments. This unit group also includes dance teachers who are usually employed by dance academies and dance schools.

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53121Actors, comedians and circus performers

Actors, comedians and circus performers perform roles and circus skills in circuses, motion picture, television, theatre and radio productions to entertain a variety of audiences. They are employed by motion picture, television, circuses, theatre and other production companies. This unit group includes acting teachers employed by private acting schools.

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53122Painters, sculptors and other visual artists

Painters, sculptors and other visual artists create original paintings, drawings, sculptures, engravings and other artistic works. They are usually self-employed. This unit group also includes art instructors and teachers, who are usually employed by art schools.

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53123Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers

Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers conceptualize and produce designs for film, television, theatre and video productions, garments and textiles, displays and exhibits, and for other creative items such as jewellery and trophies. Theatre designers are employed by performing arts and broadcasting companies and by festivals; fashion designers are employed by clothing and textile companies or may be self-employed; and exhibit designers are employed by museums. Other creative designers in this unit group are employed by manufacturing establishments or may be self-employed.

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53124Artisans and craftspersons

Artisans and craftspersons use manual and artistic skills to design and make ornamental objects, pottery, stained glass, jewellery, rugs, blankets, other handicrafts and artistic floral arrangements. Makers of musical instruments are also included in this unit group. Most craftspersons are self-employed. Artistic floral arrangers are usually employed in florist shops and floral departments of retail establishments, or may be self-employed. Craft instructors are also included in this unit group and are employed by artisan guilds, colleges, private studios and recreational organizations.

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53125Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products

Patternmakers in this unit group create master patterns for the production of garments, footwear and other textile, leather or fur products. They are employed by pattern manufacturers, textile, leather or fur products manufacturers, or they may be self-employed.

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532Occupations in sports
5320Athletes, coaches, referees and related occupations
53200Athletes

Athletes participate in competitive sports events on an amateur or professional basis. They play team sports such as hockey, baseball, football and lacrosse; or compete in individual sports such as skiing, figure skating, boxing or track and field; or in games such as poker or chess. They are employed by professional team organizations or they may be self-employed.

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53201Coaches

Coaches prepare and train individual athletes or teams for competitive events. They are employed by national and provincial sports organizations, professional and amateur sports teams, sports clubs and universities or they may be self-employed. This unit group also includes sports scouts who identify and recruit athletes for professional sports teams. They are employed by professional sports organizations.

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53202Sports officials and referees

Sports officials and referees observe and enforce rules and regulations governing sporting events, athletic games and sports competitions. They are employed by national, provincial and local sporting commissions, organizations and leagues.

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54Support occupations in sport
541Support occupations in sport
5410Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness
54100Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness

Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness lead and instruct groups and individuals in recreational, sports, fitness or athletic programs. Fitness appraisers conduct fitness tests and assessments and design, develop and deliver fitness programs. They are employed by community centres, sports and fitness clubs, outdoor centres, resorts, recreational facilities, health care facilities, retirement homes, correctional institutions, government departments, private businesses, tourism associations and similar establishments.

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55Support occupations in art and culture
551Support occupations in art and culture
5510Support occupations in art and culture
55109Other performers

Other performers include influencers, magicians, models, puppeteers and other performers. They are employed by nightclubs and theatre, advertising and other production companies, or they may be self-employed.

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6Sales and service occupations
60Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services
600Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services
6001Corporate sales managers
60010Corporate sales managers

Corporate sales managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial, institutional, e-business and wholesale and retail sales. They are employed by commercial, industrial and wholesale and retail trade establishments.

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6002Retail and wholesale trade managers
60020Retail and wholesale trade managers

Retail and wholesale trade managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that sell merchandise or services on a retail or wholesale basis. They are employed by retail and wholesale sales establishments or they may own and operate their own store.

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6003Managers in food service and accommodation
60030Restaurant and food service managers

Restaurant and food service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of restaurants, bars, cafeterias and other food and beverage services. They are employed in food and beverage service establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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60031Accommodation service managers

Accommodation service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an accommodation establishment or of a department within such an establishment. They are employed by hotels, motels, resorts, student residences and other accommodation establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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6004Managers in customer and personal services
60040Managers in customer and personal services

Managers in customer and personal services include managers of establishments that provide services such as dry cleaning, hairdressing or residential cleaning. This unit group also includes managers of schools that provide non-vocational instruction in driving, languages, music, dance, art, cooking or fashion.

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62Retail sales and service supervisors and specialized occupations in sales and services
620Retail sales and service supervisors
6201Retail sales supervisors
62010Retail sales supervisors

Retail sales supervisors supervise and coordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers (64.100), Cashiers (65.100), Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers (65.102) and Other sales related occupations (65.109). They are employed by stores and other retail businesses, wholesale businesses that sell on a retail basis to the public, rental service establishments and businesses involved in door-to-door soliciting and telemarketing.

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6202Service supervisors
62020Food service supervisors

Food service supervisors supervise, direct and coordinate the activities of workers who prepare, portion and serve food. They are employed by hospitals and other health care establishments and by cafeterias, catering companies and other food service establishments.

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62021Executive housekeepers

Executive housekeepers direct and control the operations of housekeeping departments within hotels, hospitals and other establishments.

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62022Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors

Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors supervise and coordinate the activities of hotel accommodation service clerks, casino workers, reservation clerks and other travel and accommodations workers. They are employed by service establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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62023Customer and information services supervisors

Customer and information services supervisors supervise and coordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Customer service representatives - financial institutions (64.400) and Other customer and information services representatives (64.409). They are employed by banks, trust companies, credit unions and similar financial institutions, retail establishments, contact centres, insurance, telephone and utility companies and other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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62024Cleaning supervisors

Cleaning supervisors supervise and coordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Light duty cleaners (65.310), Specialized cleaners (65.311), and Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents (73.201). They are employed by hospitals and other health care institutions, hotels, motels, schools and other educational institutions, commercial and industrial establishments, home and office cleaning establishments and by various specialized cleaning companies.

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62029Other services supervisors

Other services supervisors supervise and coordinate the activities of dry cleaning, laundry, ironing, pressing and finishing workers, theatre ushers and attendants, spa, sports and recreation club workers, commissionaires, security guards and other service workers. They are employed by service establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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621Specialized sales occupations
6210Technical sales specialists in wholesale trade and retail and wholesale buyers
62100Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade

Technical sales specialists, wholesale trade, sell a range of technical goods and services, such as scientific, agricultural and industrial products, electricity, telecommunications services and computer services, to governments and to commercial and industrial establishments in domestic and international localities. They are employed by establishments that produce or provide technical goods and services, such as pharmaceutical companies, industrial equipment manufacturing companies, grain elevators, computer services firms, engineering firms and hydroelectric companies, or they may be self-employed technical sales specialists/agents who contract their services to other companies. Technical sales specialists in wholesale trade who are supervisors are included in this unit group.

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62101Retail and wholesale buyers

Retail and wholesale buyers buy merchandise for resale by retail or wholesale establishments and are usually responsible for the merchandising operations of retail or wholesale establishments. Retail and wholesale buyers who are supervisors and those who are assistants are included in this unit group.

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622Specialized services occupations
6220Specialized occupations in services
62200Chefs

Chefs plan and direct food preparation and cooking activities and prepare and cook meals and specialty foods. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other health care institutions, central food commissaries, clubs and similar establishments, and on ships.

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62201Funeral directors and embalmers

Funeral directors coordinate and arrange all aspects of funeral services. Embalmers prepare the remains of deceased persons for public visitation and burial. Funeral directors and embalmers are employed by funeral homes.

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62202Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations

Jewellers and workers in related occupations fabricate, assemble, repair and appraise fine jewellery. Watch repairers and related workers repair, clean, adjust and fabricate parts for clocks and watches. They are employed by jewellery, clock and watch manufacturers and retail stores, by jewellery and watch repair shops or they may be self-employed.

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63Occupations in sales and services
631Occupations in sales
6310Insurance, real estate and financial sales occupations
63100Insurance agents and brokers

Insurance agents and brokers sell life, automobile, property, health and other types of insurance to individuals, businesses and public institutions. Insurance agents are employed by individual insurance companies or are independent representatives of specific insurance companies. Insurance brokers are employed by brokerage firms, or may work in partnerships or hold sole proprietorship. Supervisors of insurance agents are included in this unit group.

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63101Real estate agents and salespersons

Real estate agents and salespersons act as agents for the sale or purchase of houses, apartments, commercial buildings, land and other real estate. They are employed in the real estate industry.

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63102Financial sales representatives

Financial sales representatives sell basic deposit, investment and loan products and services to individuals and businesses. They work in banks, credit unions, trust companies and similar financial institutions.

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632Occupations in services
6320Cooks, butchers and bakers
63200Cooks

Cooks prepare and cook a wide variety of foods. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other health care institutions, central food commissaries, educational institutions and other establishments. They are also employed aboard ships and at construction and logging campsites. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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63201Butchers - retail and wholesale

Butchers prepare standard and specialty cuts of meat, poultry, fish and shellfish for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments. They are employed in supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish stores or may be self-employed. Butchers who are supervisors or heads of departments are included in this unit group. Apprentices are also included in this unit group

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63202Bakers

Bakers prepare bread, rolls, muffins, pies, pastries, cakes and cookies in retail and wholesale bakeries and dining establishments. They are employed in bakeries, supermarkets, catering companies, hotels, restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions, or they may be self-employed. Bakers who are supervisors are included in this unit group. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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6321Hairstylists and estheticians
63210Hairstylists and barbers

Hairstylists and barbers cut and style hair and perform related services. They are employed in hairstyling or hairdressing salons, barber shops, vocational schools, health care establishments and theatre, film and television establishments. Apprentices are also included in this unit group.

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63211Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations

Estheticians, electrologists and workers in related occupations provide facial and body treatments designed to enhance an individual's physical appearance. They are employed in beauty salons, electrolysis studios, scalp treatment and hair replacement clinics and other similar establishments and in cosmetic departments of retail establishments such as pharmacies and department stores, or they may be self-employed.

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6322Shoe repairers, shoemakers and upholsterers
63220Shoe repairers and shoemakers

Shoe repairers repair footwear and shoemakers make specialized and custom shoes and boots. They are employed in shoe repair shops or custom shoemaking establishments, or they may be self-employed.

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63221Upholsterers

Upholsterers cover furniture, fixtures and similar items with fabric, leather or other upholstery materials. They are employed by furniture, aircraft, motor vehicle and other manufacturing companies, furniture retail outlets and repair shops or they may be self-employed.

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64Sales and service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations
641Retail salespersons and non-technical wholesale trade sales and account representatives
6410Retail salespersons and non-technical wholesale trade sales and account representatives
64100Retail salespersons and visual merchandisers

Retail salespersons sell, rent or lease a range of technical and non-technical goods and services directly to consumers. Visual merchandisers plan, create and implement windows and in-store displays. They are employed by stores and other retail businesses, as well as wholesale businesses that sell on a retail basis to the public.

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64101Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)

Sales representatives in wholesale trade (non-technical), sell non-technical goods and services to retail, wholesale, commercial, industrial, professional and other clients domestically and internationally. They are employed by establishments that produce or provide goods and services such as petroleum companies, food, beverage and tobacco producers, clothing manufacturers, motor vehicles and parts manufacturers, hotels, business services firms, and transportation companies. Auctioneers are included in this unit group. Sales representatives in wholesale trade who are supervisors are also included in this unit group.

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642Occupations in personal service
6420Occupations in personal service
64200Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners

Tailors, dressmakers and furriers make, alter and repair tailored clothing, dresses, coats and other made-to-measure garments. Milliners make, alter and repair hats. This unit group also includes alterationists who fit, alter and repair garments. They are employed by clothing retailers, clothing alteration shops, dry cleaners and garment manufacturing companies or they may be self-employed.

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64201Image, social and other personal consultants

Image, social and other personal consultants advise clients on their personal appearance, speaking style, manners or other behaviours in order to improve personal or business images. They are employed by beauty salons, fashion boutiques, modelling schools, image consulting companies, weight loss centres or they may be self-employed.

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643Occupations in food, accommodation and tourism
6430Occupations in food and beverage service
64300Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses

Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses greet patrons and escort them to tables, and supervise and coordinate the activities of food and beverage servers. They are employed in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, private clubs, cocktail lounges and similar establishments.

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64301Bartenders

Bartenders mix and serve alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, bars, taverns, private clubs, banquet halls and other licensed establishments. Supervisors of bartenders are included in this unit group.

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6431Occupations in travel and accommodation
64310Travel counsellors

Travel counsellors advise clients on travel options and tour packages, make bookings and reservations, prepare tickets and receive payment. They are employed in travel agencies, transportation and tourism firms and hotel chains.

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64311Pursers and flight attendants

Pursers and flight attendants ensure the safety and comfort of passengers and crew members during flights. Ship pursers attend to the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships. Airline pursers and flight attendants are employed by airline companies. Ship pursers are employed by tour boat or cruise ship companies.

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64312Airline ticket and service agents

Airline ticket and service agents issue tickets, provide fare quotations, make reservations, conduct passenger check-in, trace missing baggage, arrange for cargo shipments and perform other related customer service duties to assist airline passengers. They are employed by airline companies.

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64313Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks

Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks, quote fares and rates, make reservations, issue tickets, process cargo shipments, check baggage and perform other related customer service duties to assist travellers. They are employed by bus and railway companies, freight forwarding and shipping companies, boat cruise operators and other public transit establishments and by travel wholesalers.

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64314Hotel front desk clerks

Hotel front desk clerks make room reservations, provide information and services to guests and receive payment for services. They are employed by hotels, motels and resorts.

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6432Tourism and amusement services occupations
64320Tour and travel guides

Tour and travel guides escort individuals and groups on trips, on sightseeing tours of cities and on tours of historical sites and establishments such as famous buildings, manufacturing plants, cathedrals and theme parks. They also provide descriptions and background information on interesting features. They are employed by tour operators, resorts and other establishments or may be self-employed.

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64321Casino workers

Casino workers operate gaming tables, assist patrons using slot machines, accept keno wagers, pay out winning bets and jackpots and collect losing bets. They are employed by casinos.

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64322Outdoor sport and recreational guides

Outdoor sport and recreational guides organize and conduct trips or expeditions for sports enthusiasts, adventurers, tourists and resort guests. They are employed by private companies and resorts or may be self-employed.

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644Occupations in customer, information and protective services
6440Customer and information services representatives
64400Customer services representatives - financial institutions

Customer service representatives in financial institutions process customers' financial transactions and provide information on related banking products and services. They are employed by banks, trust companies, credit unions and similar financial institutions.

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64401Postal services representatives

Postal services representatives serve customers and record transactions at sales counters and postal wickets. They maintain inventory and order supplies in post offices and internal mail rooms. They are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier and parcel express companies and establishments throughout the public and private sectors.

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64409Other customer and information services representatives

Other customer and information services representatives answer enquiries, provide information regarding an establishment's goods, services and policies and provide customer services such as receiving payments and processing requests for services. They are employed by retail establishments, contact centres, insurance, telecommunications and utility companies and other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.

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6441Security guards and related security service occupations
64410Security guards and related security service occupations

Security guards and workers in related security service occupations guard and implement security measures to protect property against theft, vandalism and fire; to control access to establishments; to maintain order and enforce regulations at public events and within establishments; to perform screening of passengers, luggage or cargo; to conduct private investigations for clients or employers and to provide other protective services not elsewhere classified. They are employed by public or private security agencies, residential complexes, educational, cultural, financial and health institutions, retail establishments, investigation service companies, transportation facilities, and organizations throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.

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65Sales and service support occupations
651Sales support occupations
6510Cashiers and other sales support occupations
65100Cashiers

Cashiers operate cash registers, optical price scanners, computers or other equipment to record and accept payment for the purchase of goods, services and admissions. They are employed in stores, restaurants, theatres, recreational and sports establishments, currency exchange booths, government offices, business offices and other service, retail and wholesale establishments.

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65101Service station attendants

Service station attendants employed in automotive service stations sell fuel and other automotive products and perform such services as fuelling, cleaning, lubricating and performing minor repairs to motor vehicles. Those employed in marinas sell fuel, rent boats and related equipment, and maintain marina facilities.

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65102Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers

Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers pack customers' purchases, price items, stock shelves with merchandise, and fill online, mail and telephone orders. They are employed in retail establishments, such as grocery, hardware and department stores, and in warehouses.

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65109Other sales related occupations

Workers in other sales related occupations sell goods or services during home demonstrations or by telephone soliciting, retail exhibitions or street vending. They are employed by a wide range of retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturers, telemarketing companies and call centres, or they may be self-employed.

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652Support occupations in food, accommodation and tourism
6520Food support occupations
65200Food and beverage servers

Food and beverage servers take patrons' food and beverage orders and serve orders to patrons. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, bars, taverns, private clubs, banquet halls and similar establishments.

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65201Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations

Food counter attendants and food preparers prepare, heat and finish cooking simple food items and serve customers at food counters. Kitchen helpers, food service helpers and dishwashers clear tables, clean kitchen areas, wash dishes, and perform various other activities to assist workers who prepare or serve food and beverages. They are employed by restaurants, cafés, hotels, fast food outlets, cafeterias, hospitals and other establishments.

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